Technology Glossary

Bob Jensen at Trinity University

·         Click here to view (in this window) Bob Jensen's Technology and Technology in Education Glossary

The best way to find definitions and discussions of most any term is to type in define "term" in Google ---
For example, suppose you want the definition of a cantango:





·        Bob Jensen's dictionary bookmarks are at


·         The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

·         Another way to possibly find useful definitions is Wikipedia ---

·         File Extension Listings 
Filename Extensions ---
Learn more about file extensions (those three letters at the end of computer file names) ---


·                How Web Pages Work --- 
·                How Internet Infrastructure Works --- 
·                How Computer Things Work (including buying guides) ---
Personal technology reviews by Walter Mossberg ---  


·         Click Here to view (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Glossary and Transcriptions of Experts Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities (SFAS 133 and IAS 39)

·         A listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

·         Acronym Search ---

·        Yahoo's links to Acronyms and Abbreviations ---

This Web site offers visitors short definitions for technical terminology such as, for example, cable modem. Also users can find brief explanations of acronyms for high-speed Internet concepts such as DSL—digital subscriber line.

·         A long listing of accounting, finance and business glossaries

"What's the Best Q&A Site?" by Wade Roush, MIT's Technology Review, December 22, 2006 --- 



Magellan Metasearch --- 

Google is a great search engine, but it's also more than that. Google has tons of hidden features, some of which are quite fun and most of which are extremely useful— if you know about them. How do you discover all these hidden features within the Google site?



·        October 8, 2005 message from Per Christensson

Here is a good glossary to add to your site at: 

The Sharpened Computer Glossary 

Also, is a great file extensions reference to consider adding as well. 

Hope you find this helpful!

Thanks, -
Per Christensson



·         e-Learning Glossary compiled by Eva Kaplan-Leiserson ---

·         Bob Jensen's threads on assurance services and security --- 

·         Personality theories glossary ---

·         The Glossarist --- 
My minor disappointment is that under the category "Business" there is no sub-category for accounting.  My major disappointment is that The Glossarist misses many of our most important Business glossaries.  But credit must be given where credit is due.  The Glossarist links us to thousands of excellent glossaries.

Links to Nearly 5,000 Glossaries

o                                Arts & Culture

o                                Business

o                                Careers & Employment

o                                Computers & Internet

o                                Economy & Finance

o                                Education

o                                Entertainment

o                                Family & Relationships

o                                Government, Politics & Military

o                                Health, Medicine & Fitness

o                                Humanities & Social Sciences

o                                Law and Justice

o                                Lifestyle

o                                Media

o                                News & Weather

o                                Reference

o                                Science

o                                Sports & Recreation

o                                Technology

o                                Transport

o                                World, Regions, Countries & Travel

·          Also see Glossaries at 


·         Do you ever search for the spelling of an English word that you just cannot find in an English language dictionary?  Try 

·         Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy --- 

·         An enormous listing of online glossaries in English, French, and Italian  

·         LibrarySpot:  Your gateway to knowledge --- 
Many links to free encyclopedias, dictionaries, statistics, and much more

Real humans will also help you find what your looking for at Ask an Expert

 December 30, 2006 message from []

Dear Robert,

We are sorry we are coming back to you so late - please forgive us the delay.

This is to let you know we have published your glossary at 


Please verify if everything is fine for you.

If you have other glossaries, please don't hesitate to submit them to us.

Have a prosperous Year of 2007!


Serhiy Onoshko

The online version at Jensen’s Website is shown below.


Click on a Navigation Pointer Below for Jensen's Technology Glossary

Click Here For Terms Commencing With Numbers


( Click on Any Letter Below)

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Navigate to Top of Document

Numbered First Letter Terms

Click on a term or phrase below:

2-bit video adapter / 2-D / 3-D / 3DO / 4-bit computer / 4-bit video adapter / 4GL Database Languages /16:9 TV / 24-bit video adapter / 32-bit computer

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view   (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

2-bit video adapter= (See Video adapter)

2-D= Two dimensional graphics images and animated images. Software options for 2-D scanning and authoring are reviewed in the NewMedia 1995 Tool Guide, pp. 33-43. (See also Paintbrush software)

3-D= Three dimensional graphics images and animated images. Images in 3-D, especially 3-D photographs, are sometimes called "holograms." Biedney (1994) provides a technical discussion and a comparison of alternative software options for rendering 3-D images on desktop computers. Software options for 3-D rendering on the web are reviewed in the NewMedia, May 5 1998, pp. 52-64. The NewMedia web site is at Those authoring packages rated as "Awesome" include Live Picture Reality Studio at (800-724-7900) and Platinum Technology VRCreator at (800-442-6861).  There are many other options rated as "Thumbs Up" or "Does the Job."  (See also Rendering)

3DO= (See CD-3DO)

4-bit computer= (See Bus)

4-bit video adapter= (See Video adapter)

4GL Database Languages = Fourth Generation Languages for databases. The first three generations were developed fairly quickly, but these were painfully slow and complex for certain kinds of tasks such as report generation and database queries. Many of the 4GLs are: database query languages (e.g. SQL; Focus, Metafont, PostScript, RPG-II, S, IDL-PV/WAVE, Gauss, Mathematica and data-stream languages such as AVS, APE, Iris Explorer.) See GainMomentum and Relational database management.

16:9 TV= (See Wide-screen TV)

24-bit video adapter= (See Video adapter)

32-bit computer= (See Bus)

Return to Top of Document


Click on a term or phrase below:

AB roll editing / AB style switches / ABKY / Accelerated/Advanced Graphics PortAccelerator board / Account boot disk / Acrobat / Active video / ActiveX / ADAM / ADC / ADO and RDS /ADPCM / AERO / Agent / AGP / AIF / AIX / Alpha processor / ALT / America Online / Amiga / Amiga DOS / AMPS /Analog / Anchor / Anchor color / ALN / ANet / Animation / Annotations / ANSI / Anti-Blur / API / Apple AV / Apple Corporation / Apple QuickTime / Archie / ARPANet / Arrays / Artificial Intelligence (AI) / ASCII / Ask Jeeves / ASP (two meanings) /Aspect ratio / Assessment / Asynchronous / Asynchronous connection / Asynchronous Learning Networks/ AT / ATG / ATM / AU / AU sounds / Audio / Audio board / Audio card / Audio Conversion to Text / Audio on the Internet / Audio streaming / Authenticated Payment Program / Authoring / Authoring software / Authorware / Autodesk / A/V / AV / Avatar / AVI

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view   (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries


AB roll editing= The transfer of portions of two video sources into one master videotape. For example, one source may be a VCR and the other source a video camera. (See also Video)

AB style switches = analog switchers that are designed to be used in applications whenever multiple computer sources must be connected to a single display device such as a monitor, projector, or LCD panel. For example, multiple VGA or SVGA PCs may be connected to a single data projector or PCs and Macs may be connected to a single data projector. Extron carries an extensive line of AB style switches at See also Projection.

ABKY= The Atkinson, Banker, Kaplan, and Young (1994) textbook entitled Management Accounting which is noteworthy in this glossary as being the first accounting text accompanied by an Internet bulletin board. Prentice-Hall was the first publishing company, to our knowledge, to offer an interactive two-way network dialog between adopters of selected textbooks and the authors of those books, including a bulletin board of latest readings related to the text, abstracts of related literature, and classroom aids. The ABKY network was the first of the Prentice-Hall offerings to adopters and is available on (See also Internet and Networks)

Accelerated/Advanced Graphics Port = A bus specification by that gives 3D graphics cards faster access to main memory than the usual PCI bus.   AGP allows scattered data in system memory to be read in bursts. AGP reduces the overall cost by using existing system memory.

Accelerator board= A hardware electronic board (containing a microprocessor) that can be added to some computers in order to speed up the processing in slow computers. The speed gains are confined to internal calculating and sorting such that no apparent gains are obtained for file management and other busing activities. (See also CPU, Board, and Bus)

Account boot disk= A disk used to load DOS into the computer when it is turned on.

Acrobat= (See PDF)

Active video= A video AV standard and open-video architecture that Microsoft Corporation hopes will become the popular standard to replace the Video for Windows (.avi file extension) and Quicktime (.mov file extension) video architecture. Active video attempts to overcome common complaints with its Video for Windows (e.g., limited throughput, poor A/V synchronization, and hardware/software incompatibilities. Also, Active Video will have software MPEG decoding and will cross platforms with Windows, Windows 2000, and Power Macintosh. It will also have an Active Movie filter to play on the Internet via Microsoft's Explorer browser. Whereas Video for Windows was losing out to Apple's Quicktime in popularity, Microsoft's Active Video makes it a closer race between Apple and Microsoft for dominance in the setting of video standards. (See also Video and MPEG)

ActiveX = utilities from Microsoft Corporation that combine older Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) and Component Object Model (COM) utilities.  AcitiveX is usually coded in Visual Basic and is quite confusing since it is an outgrowth of a complex set of OLE and COM technologies.  Various ActiveX applications can be downloaded from,271,0-0,00.html.   One of the most widespread applications is to give interactive controls (e.g., ask questions, provide answers, perform computations, push buttons, etc.) to users of Internet Explorer on the web.  Therein lies a huge risk as well when computers also have Windows Scripting Host (WSH) utilities using ActiveX.     WSH files have a file extension whs and are similar to PIF files in older 16-bit applications.  Prior to WSH applications, users could browse the web and use email without any worries about virus infections as long as security warnings were heeded about file downloads that run in Microsoft Word, Excel, etc.  That is no longer the case if WSH utilities are installed.  To avoid such risks, users can either rely upon Netscape products for email and web browsing since Netscape products use Java rather than ActiveX software.  If users prefer Microsoft Internet Explorer for web browsing and Microsoft Outlook for email, then they may want to consider adding security barriers to WSH risks.  In Internet Explorer you can click on menu choices (View, Internet Options, Security, Custom, Settings) and choose the option to disable "ActiveX Controls Not Marked as Safe."  Repeat the same procedure for Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Express.  You may also want to consider disabling WSH, although you thereby lose the applications relying on WSH utilities.   For virus updates and news, two good web sites are Network Associates at and Mcafee at .  (Also see Visual Basic and CORBA )  For more information on the use of ActiveX in distributed network computing, see Database, ADO, and RDS.

ADAM= Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine project that resulted in high quality computer-aided learning modules for schools of medicine. The "inside story" of A.D.A.M. is briefly reviewed in PC World, November 1994, p. 96. See A.D.A.M. Software, Inc. at  for more details.

ADC= Analog to Digital Converter that converts analog sound to binary code form (digital information). (See also DAC, Modem and Video)

ADO = (See Database.)

ADPCM= Adaptive Pulse Code Modulation of audio waveform sampling that records the difference between samples is recorded rather than the actual values. This increases fidelity with lower resolution than conventional PCM. (See also Audio and PCM)


"Before Going to Buy High-Tech Devices, Learn the New Terms," by Walter S. Mossberg, The Wall Street Journal,  November 16, 2006; Page B1 ---

Aero: This is the graphical user interface that's a key part of Microsoft's new Windows Vista operating system, due out around Jan. 30. If you want to get the full benefit of Vista, make sure any Windows PC you buy this season is capable of running Aero. Many are not.


Agent= Agents are search tools that automatically seek out relevant online information based on your specifications. Agents are also called intelligent agents, personal agents, knowbots or droids.

AIF= One format of Macintosh audio (sound) files. (See also Audio)

AIX= An IBM version of the Unix operating system. It will run on PCs with 386 or higher chips and on workstations and mainframes. (See also Unix)

ALN = (See Asynchronous Learning Networks)

Alpha processor= The ultimate top-of-the line processor for PCs that uses DEC's 21064 chip. The "Alpha-based" systems such as the DECpc from Digital Equipment Corporation claims it is the fastest system available for Windows 2000.

ALT= Software ALTernatives to authoring systems that have full CMS utilities. In other words, professors who do not need full CMS features may opt for alternative authoring packages such as hypertext or hypermedia packages that do not have full CMS features. Various ALT options are compared in Chapter 3. (See also CMS)

America Online= The commercial AOL network (800-827-6364) that "remains the hottest, easiest-to-use and most interesting of the services" according to Mossberg (1994a). AOL offers Time Magazine, the Chigago Tribune, and other news and television network options. New services to educators online include an American Federation of Teachers online doctoral program from the Electronic University Network and the Forum on Technology in Education and Training (FORUM-TET). With the May 11, 1994 announcement of a merger of AOL and Redgate Communications, AOL will take an early lead over competitors in multimedia and GUI graphics networking. (See also GUI, Networks, CompuServe, Internet, eWorld, Interchange, and Prodigy)

Amiga= A video computing hardware/software desktop workstation formerly manufactured and marketed by Commodore International based on Motorola microprocessors. Amiga workstations became a widely popular option in conjunction with NewTek's Video Toaster software for home and office videotape productions. Amiga developed its own operating system called Amiga DOS. A major drawback is that as a computer it does not communicate (i.e., its files are not readable) on more popular Apple, PC, and Unix operating systems. For example, it can neither read MS-DOS files into its operating system nor write out MS-DOS files. It is far less of a competitor for digital computers and networking than for analog video computers such as Mac Video (see Birkmaier (1993) and Torres 1993). The new Amiga workstations became aggressive low-priced competitors to Silicon Graphics and Sun workstations for 3D animation rendering for broadcast quality video. The future of the Amiga is clouded by the 1994 declaration of bankruptcy and subsequent liquidation of the former Commodore International Corporation. At this juncture it is uncertain whether another manufacturer will take over all Amiga technologies and patents. NewTek Inc. (800-847-6111) now sells workstations for its Video Toaster software formerly used in Amiga computers. The Amiga and NewTek workstations compete with Apple AV and SGI competitors, but these options should not be confused with the more extensive concepts of network video servers. (See also Video server, CD32, Apple AV, SGI, and Mac)

Hello Bob, I stumbled across your listing of computer and techincal terms and was very pleased to have found it! It looks very complete. I wanted to mention an error I found. In the text on the Amiga, you mention it could not read or write MS-Dos disks. This is not correct. The Amiga OS supported multiple disk types, excluding Macintosh due to the fact that those disks were not constant velocity format. MS-Dos 720k - 1.44k were supported provided the person had a HD drive for the 1.44 capability.

Thanks for the great work again!

Aaron R>
Aaron & Terri
[ ]

You can read the following at 

A combination of fierce loyalty and anti-Microsoft sentiment that would make Linux and Mac users blush has Amiga users clinging to their aging computers. The prospect of new hardware is almost too much for the dedicated outcasts to handle. They stick with the platform because it's stable, fast, and has an elegant OS that could multitask in only 512KB of memory fifteen years ago, back when Microsoft still thought DOS was the way to go.

No new hardware has been made for the Amiga since Commodore went under in 1993, with the exception of some third-party peripherals.

"And [now] there's tremendous hatred for Microsoft," said Harv Laser, founder of the AmigaZone, the oldest Amiga fan site online, with roots dating back to the mid-1980s. "A lot of people, myself included, don't want to give Bill Gates one penny."

So when a mysterious German computer company materialized last week announcing new computers based on the long-abandoned Amiga technology, there was much jubilation, along with some skepticism, on Amiga enthusiast sites.

Amiga DOS= (See Amiga)

AMPS = (See Wireless Glossary of Terms)

Analog= (See Video)

Anchor= Synonymous with hyperlinks, anchor refers to non-linear links among documents. Or more simply put, it's the word or phrase that can be selected to connect to another page resource.

Anchor color= The color on a browser screen that represents the anchor tag (navigation item) colors. The reason so many are blue is that blue is often the default color in browser software. This color can be changed to any combination of red, green and blue. The ability to change these colors at the reader level complicates choice of color at the authoring level.

ANet= The International Accounting Network, Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia and Bond University, Queensland, Australia. The email address is A description of services is contained in the CETA Newsletter, June, 1994. Mailing lists are also available on ANet, including CDI-ACC-AUDIT in the United Kingdom and AC-CHANGE from Maricopa College in Arizona. (See also International Internet Association, PIC-AECM, and RAW)

Animation= Time-phased moving graphic images that give the impression of motion such as in motion picture cartoons or videographic movements of objects about the screen. Several frames show a progression of movement, and thereby simulate movement. The best-buy in animation software is Autodesk 3D Studio according to PC Computing, December 1994, p. 204. (See also 3-D, flc/fli, Morphing, and Video)

Annotations= Personal notes you can attach to the documents you have saved in your Web browser. The notes are available to you whenever the document is viewed.

ANSI= The American National Standards Institute sets basic standards like ASCII characters and acts as the United States' delegate to the ISO. Standards can be ordered from ANSI by writing to the ANSI Sales Department, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. (See also ASCII, ISO 9000,  and Rich-text format)


"Before Going to Buy High-Tech Devices, Learn the New Terms," by Walter S. Mossberg, The Wall Street Journal,  November 16, 2006; Page B1 ---

Anti-Blur: Also known as antishake or image stabilization, this is a crucial feature of digital cameras today. Because few cameras have optical viewfinders, users tend to hold them at arm's length to frame the shot on the LCD screen. This increases the likelihood of shaking the camera. An anti-blur feature can correct that. The best anti-blur technology is optical. Digital versions are less effective.

API= Application Program Interface by which an application program accesses operating system.An API can also provide an interface between a high level language and lower level utilities and services which were written without consideration for the calling conventions supported by compiled languages. Netscape Corporation and Microsoft both provide APIs called NSAPI and ISAPI that essentially extend their web servers, and it provides developers a way to put application code actually within the web server. This means that you don’t have to start up a separate process each time one of these applications is called. And, since that application is always running, it can maintain connections to the database.

Apple AV= A line of computers that was popular for low-cost analog video computing due to built video capture hardware on the motherboard, a DAV connector, and a scan converter for analog video output to television sets and videotape recorders. The Power Macs have replaced the Apple AVs. (See also Video server, Dry camera, SGI, Mac, PowerPC, Mozart, Copeland, Gershwin, and Amiga)

Apple Corporation = (See Mac.)

Apple QuickTime= (See QuickTime)

Archie= Derived from the word archive, Archie is a Net-based service that allows you to locate files that can be downloaded via FTP.

ARPANet= The Advanced Research Projects AgencyNetwork formed in 1969 to connect the Department of Defense (DOD) with institutions conducting major defense contract research. The network linked super computers in major research universities with the DOD. This is credited with being the first academic computer network and is considered the "mother" of the Internet. In the 1980s, ARPANet split into two networks called ARPANet and MILNet (for unclassified military research). An interconnection with the DOD Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) led to a set of networks called DARPA Internet that later became referred to as just the Internet. (See also Internet)

Arrays= (See Jukeboxes)

Artificial Intelligence (AI)= Is a branch (usually called AI/Expert Systems) of computer science, mathematics, psychology, and systems engineering that attempts to make computer "decision making" more like human decision making and to aid or replace human decision makers with machines. Expert systems attempt to utilize the skills, knowledge, and decision evaluation processes of human experts. For example, computers now aid physicians in diagnosing diseases and computer-guided laser rockets virtually replace human guidance decisions. AI failed to live up to its early expectations when it was believed that AI computers would never fail to win at chess and language translators would soon be put out of work by computers. However, applications of AI have been taking place and computers can now play very good chess to a point where they occasionally beat even the grand masters.

ASCII= American Standard Code for Information Interchange computer character set (text and symbols) that enables transfer of text and data between different computing systems. This international standard provides only very plain text without options for font modifications. For example, files from word processors such as Microsoft Word, Word Perfect, and Word Star often cannot be imported to hypertext or hypermedia software without conversion to ASCII code (most word processors will change files to ASCII "text" files). The downside is that nearly all formatting and font variations are lost in ASCII conversions such that imported ASCII text may have to be re-formatted line by line and altered for font preferences. Very few software alternatives have "filters" that import word processor files directly without having to convert to ASCII codes, although many are now adding rich-text format (RTF) utilities. In hypertext authoring, choice of a hypertext software option should include a question concerning whether "filters" are available for avoidance of ASCII text conversions. (See alsoANSI, Internet Messaging, and Rich-text format)

Ask Jeeves = (See Search engine.)

ASP = has at least two meanings.

Application Service Provider that provides  individuals or enterprises access over the Internet to applications and related services.  This service is s sometimes referred to as "apps-on-tap."  Early applications include:

  • Remote access serving for the users of an enterprise
  • An off-premises local area network to which mobile users can be connected, with a common file server
  • Specialized applications that would be expensive to install and maintain within your own company or on your own computer

Hewlett-Packard, SAP, and Qwest have formed one of the first major alliances for providing ASP services.

Active Server Pages.  ASP script extensions contain either Visual Basic or Jscript code. When a browser requests an ASP page, the Web server generates a page with HTML code and sends it back to the browser. So ASP pages are similar to CGI scripts, but they enable Visual Basic programmers to work with familiar tools.  This is a page that performs customized "applications" services.  A great example is where individuals or complete business firms can access accounting software that allows all accounting to be maintained in NetLedger's online files.  Business transactions (such as billings and collections) can even be managed by the applications server.  See 

Other examples are given at,11011,2615695,00.html 

For now, however, the latest twist on the ASP trend—what Outtask and some analysts are calling the BSP, or business service provider, model—remains immature. The range of business process services being offered in conjunction with hosted applications is narrow, mostly limited to functions such as travel, PC support and payroll. And, while some hosting providers such as Alexandria-based Outtask have begun building mixed portfolios of managed application and business process services from scratch and selling them directly to their customers, many established ASPs are adding the BSP tag to their résumés by forming alliances with the BPO divisions of major consulting and systems integration companies or with leaders in specific areas of outsourcing, such as Automatic Data Processing Inc. for payroll services. Many of those relationships, however, are new. Often, the hosted applications from one vendor and the business services from another are not truly integrated. So the user is often left negotiating and dealing with more than one provider.


Aspect ratio= The ratio of the horizontal to vertical size of the screen. Some monitors display rectangular pixels which can make the picture or image appear stretched. Software that allows images to be resized and changed with respect to aspect ratios greatly facilitates authoring. Otherwise, images have to be transported to other software for such changes and then transported back in a cumbersome process that makes authors grateful when aspect ratios and image sizes can be modified without such difficulties. Macromedia Director is one of the very few hypermedia authoring systems that has a utility for changing the scale and aspect ratios of imported bitmap pictures as well as rotating and inverting such pictures.

Assessment= The evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of technology on attitudes and performance. Tidd (1995) discusses various assessment scales such as the Computer Attitude Scale, the Computer Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Computer Self-Efficacy Scale. Assessment is very difficult because no matter how good the findings are in an empirical study, the relevance of those findings quickly falls away due to constantly emerging technologies that are significantly better than older technologies used in the study.

Asynchronous= A method of communication that places data in discrete blocks that are surrounded by framing bits. These bits show the beginning and ending of a block of data.

Asynchronous connection= The type of connection a modem makes over a phone line, this connection is not synchronized by a mutual timing signal or clock.

Asynchronous Learning Networks= ALN networks of education and training modules or courses where students learn in self-paced online pedagogy in contrast to synchronized presentations in traditional classrooms or electronic classrooms. Synchronous education in a scheduled sequence of classes will face serious new competition of asynchronous education distributed on networks where students learn and communicate most any day and most any time of day and study at their own paces. An example is the new online Western Governors University at Ideally, faculty or other expert help is available online to both help students and evaluate student work and ideas. In addition, asynchronous courses may schedule synchronous virtual online meetings of subsets of students or entire classes of students. Networked courses may thus be synchronous and asynchronous, although the technical learning components are largely asynchronous. Bob Jensen has a paper on ALN at that reviews, among other things, the experiments conducted on millions of dollars in Sloan Foundation grants for ALN development. See also Hypermedia and Hypertext.

AT= (See PC)

ATG= (See Video server)

ATM= Automatic Teller Machines for banks and Asynchronous Transfer Mode switching in networks. The high speed ATM networks allow transmission of video, audio, and data over local and world-wide networks. (See also Broadband, Networks, and Sonet)

AU= The file extension for UNIX audio (sound) files. (See also Audio)

AU sounds= This is an audio format developed for Sun workstations and often used to distribute sound clips via the Web.

Audio= Voice, music, and other sounds recorded and stored in analog or digital form. The term RealAudio refers to a helper-app (plug-in) that allows WWW users to hear audio files in real time. Options for creating and playing digital audio Java applets are reviewed in deCarmo (1996). Options for converting written text into audio are given in Text reading. (See also Sound board, AU, AIF, Board, Hertz, Java, MIDI, Speech recognition, Text reading, Video/audio networking, and Wave file)

Recording what you hear:  More MP3 and audio-file tools than you can shake a memory stick at!

Fred Langa, "Converting Audio Files? Let 'Er Rip!," Information Week,  July 25, 2005 ---

With all that as lead in, here, then, are the suggestions from your fellow readers for the best tools for converting, ripping, and burning audio, extracted from over a megabyte of original text mail files:


Windows Media Player
Fred, I have several ideas about freeware to burn MP3s and a possible solution to Ken's problems in burning CDs. I use Nero for most of my CD and DVD burning so I do not have a lot of experience with other freeware, but here are two I have used. First, Windows Media Player Version 10 can burn CDs from MP3 files. It can also rip music in MP3 format if you change the rip setting from its usual WMA setting. Look under Tools, Options, and then go to the Rip Music tab. Here is a link to the download. Also, Musicmatch Jukebox has a free version in addition to its paid version. It can also burn and rip MP3 files. Here is the link to the free download. In the past, I have had somewhat the same problem Ken appears to be having when burning a CD. At the very end of a burn (usually 99% complete) I would receive an error saying the burn could not complete. After some research, I found that having autoplay on might cause the PC to read the almost complete CD and try to run it JUST BEFORE it was complete. Turning off autoplay solved that problem. Most CD recording software now does this automatically during the burn process so you can leave autoplay turned on. I am not sure if this would solve Ken's problem, but it appears that he is having the same problem with every CD-burning software he tries so it might just be worth checking.
-- Clay Teague

Bob Jensen's threads on MP3 coding and decoding are at

Bob Jensen's threads on audio on the Internet are at

Older lternatives for creating MP3 audio files are given at

The Web is Alive With the Sound of MP3," Newsweek, February 22, 1999, Page 16. (hours of free downloads, including the New York Times MP3s.) (lots of samples and free downloads.)

Go to the Frequently Asked Questions at http://www.MP3.comMP3 is a file format which stores audio files on a computer in such a way that the file size is relatively small, but the song sounds near perfect. You can identify MP3 files because they will end in MP3. Typically 1 MB is equal to one minute of music or several minutes for spoken work/audiobooks.  This is about a 90% reduction in hard drive space and bandwidth vis-a-vis uncompressed high quality wav files, but the actual savings depends upon the recording quality of your wav files.   If you think about a CD-ROM holding 650 Mb, this translates to over 11 hours of high quality audio in MP3 format.  More importantly, MP3 audio does not require as much Internet bandwidth as previous audio alternatives.

Also see Web streaming

Audio board= (See Sound board)

Audio card= (See Sound board)

Audio Conversion to Text = (See Text reading)

Audio on the Internet= (See Internet audio and video)

Audio streaming= (See Web streaming)

Authenticated Payment Program=

Visa has begun the global rollout of the Authenticated Payment Program. The Program, based on commercial incentives, will vastly improve the payment service for e-merchants, consumers and Visa Members by enhancing convenience, acceptance and security. Consumers will know that they can shop safely and conveniently while preventing fraud on their card, and merchants will know they are dealing with a legitimate cardholder anywhere in the world. The newest authentication technology, 3-D Secure™, forms the basis for global interoperability of Authenticated Payments.

Authoring= Developing (writing of text, recording of audio, importing of video, inserting graphics, etc.) hypertext and hypermedia learning, entertainment, and reference materials.   The history and trends in authoring are summarized at 

Also see  Cross-platform, Delta Project, Hypertext, CORE, Non-core, Hypermedia, Morphing, Presentation, Titles, and Rendering)

Authoring software= This term refers to software that enables the creation of multimedia or hypertext documents and presentations.

Authorware= Macromedia's hypermedia authoring system designed primarily for training and education asynchronous learning courses. Authorware was originally developed for Mac computers and is still the most sophisticated option for Mac users. There is a PC version that faces stiffer competition from high-end authoring systems listed at The main competitor is probably Asymetrix ToolBook in terms of full course development, course management, CD-ROM delivery, and web delivery. For links to Macromecia and applications on the web, see The following is quoted from Jeff Glasse in MacWeek, August 25, 1997, pp.

Despite increased competition, Macromedia Inc.'s Authorware has been the undisputed champ for developing complex multimedia programs that require a high degree of user tracking. Version 4.0 of the $1,999 (estimated street price) package offers Web delivery and external file linking, making it irresistible for certain applications.

Macromedia also sells the Authorware 4.0 Interactive Studio, a $2,999 (estimated street price) package that includes Macromedia Director 6.0, xRes 3.0 and Sound Edit 16 Version 2.0.

Authorware 4 retains its heavy use of icons in interactive design. All program elements, including graphics, logic, transitions, audio and motion, are represented by small icons in the program's flowline. Program developers create a flowline in the Design window (similar to Director's Score) and view the actual media in the Presentation window (analogous to Director's Stage).

Interactive designers either love this approach or find it cumbersome, but one thing is certain: Authorware is significantly more difficult to learn than other major development packages. One of the reasons for this, however, is that Authorware boasts greater depth than other applications, making it particularly well-suited for creating complex, branched training materials--the program's original aim. Once you've overcome the rather long learning curve, the flowline also offers much easier debugging of complex logic than is possible in Director or even in mFactory Inc.'s mTropolis.

As in previous versions, Authorware 4 lets developers release titles for Macs and Intel-standard PCs without modification. The player engine is wrapped into the final project, making it a double-clickable application on both platforms. Macromedia does not charge a distribution licensing fee.

Director movies can be played within Authorware 4 with their interactivity intact. This is especially important if you want to develop titles that include both complex animation sequences, at which Director excels, and highly branched interactivity, Authorware's forte.

Writing for new audiences
Authorware 4 has been substantially retooled for Web deployment and functionality. It now supports external content controls, so a completed project can reference external media elements on a LAN, an intranet or the Internet. This lets you develop a program that can be updated without having to rebuild the entire project; simply update the media that the program references. Of course, you must manage these external files religiously, and if used in the final project, path name relationships must remain constant.

External links are managed through the aptly named External Media Browser, an essential new tool that lets you track external media efficiently and relatively painlessly.

Authorware titles can be played across the Web using Macromedia Shockwave technology. Unlike Director 6, Authorware still requires you to run a project through a separate Afterburner utility (included with the program) to "shock" it for the Web.

Version 4 adds support for a number of file formats, including GIF, JPEG and Adobe Photoshop. Images can be resized and cropped within the development environment, allowing for considerable flexibility in the process.

The program also adds a collection of Quickstart templates to help beginners create typical interactive projects.

Authorware is fully cross-platform, but there are minor differences between the two versions. Most significant is that the Mac version doesn't support Microsoft ActiveX controls, while the PC version does. This is less the fault of Macromedia than of Microsoft Corp., which has been slow to bring ActiveX technology to the Mac. Still, it's a significant issue for cross-platform developers who want to use the technology.

Despite the program's otherwise unsurpassed text-handling capabilities (including support for style sheet and RTF text import), Authorware still does not offer anti-aliased text--a serious omission. Director, which is less aimed at text-based programs, has offered this feature since Version 5.0. We hope Macromedia fixes this rather annoying problem.

While the interface is generally improved, Authorware still relies too much on dialog boxes. You often have to tunnel through several layers of them to change a single characteristic.

3-D Rendering for the Web

Software options for 3-D rendering on the web are reviewed in the NewMedia, May 5 1998, pp. 52-64. The NewMedia web site is at Those authoring packages rated as "Awesome" include Live Picture Reality Studio at (800-724-7900) and Platinum Technology VRCreator at (800-442-6861).  There are many other options rated as "Thumbs Up" or "Does the Job."

Macromedia continues to offer an environment with unparalleled power and depth for complex interactive projects. While Authorware's learning curve is significantly steeper than that of Director, mTropolis or Pitango Multimedia Ltd.'s ClickWorks, none of them offers the rich set of variables and external device controllers that Authorware boasts. Version 4's new set of Web tools makes this high-end program an even better choice.

Although Authorware lacks the powerful animation capabilities of Director, Macromedia has essentially addressed the shortcomings of both products by offering them together in the Authorware 4 Interactive Studio and allowing Director movies to be played within Authorware. The Studio provides a single development package that is essentially unsurpassed.

Macromedia Inc. of San Francisco is at (415) 252-2000 or (800) 989-3762; fax (415) 626-0554; For links to Macromecia and applications on the web, see

(See Hypermedia, Hypertext, and Authoring)

Autodesk= (See Animation and flc/fli)

A/V= Audio/Video marriage of big screen television with movie-theater-like audio in homes and classrooms.

AV= (See Apple AV)

Avatar= This term refers to an interactive representation of a human in a virtual reality environment; the term was popularized by Neal Stephenson's novel "Snow Crash."

AVI= Audio Video Interleaved digitized video files (with audio tracks) that satisfy MPC standards for Video for Windows playback. The Media Player (mplayer.exe) file that is included in Windows operating systems runs AVI files. Most PC video capture boards will convert analog video into AVI files. The AVI standard from Microsoft's Video for Windows is giving way to Microsoft's newer Active Video architecture. (See also Active video, MCI, MPC, and QuickTime)

Return to Top of Document


Click on a term or phrase below:

B2B and B2C / Baan / Back-end / Bandwidth / Bar codes / Baseband / Baud / BBS / BeVocal / BinHex / BIOS / Bit / BITNET / Blind / Blog / Blu-Ray DVD / BMP / Board / Bookmark / Bot / bps / Branch / Bridge / Broadband / Broadcasting / Browser / Browsers / ASP  /  Buffer underrun / Bulletin Board / Bus / Bus topology / Byte / Bytes

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view   (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

B2B and B2C = (See E-Business).

Baan = Baan Company is a leading provider of enterprise business software that enhances the processes common to
businesses of all sizes and industries.  Baan Company's commitment to continuously reducing complexity creates flexible, easy-to-integrate products and services that allow customers to adapt quickly to a dynamic competitive environment. The web Baan site is at   .  See database.

Back-end = the final stage in a process or a task not apparent to the user. A common usage is in a compiler. A compiler's back-end generates machine language and performs optimizations specific to the machine's architecture. The term can also be used in the context of Open System Interconnect (OSI) network applications. A standard for layering of protocols (protocol stack) to implement it were was developed in 1978 as a framework for international standards in heterogeneous computer network architecture. The architecture is split between seven layers (lowest to highest):

1. physical layer
2. data link layer
3. network layer
4. transport layer
5. session layer
6. presentation layer
7. application layer

Generally each layer uses the layer immediately below it and provides a service to the layer above in a "back ended" way.

In the third generation of network computing, web servers perform back-end database computing where it’s controlled and managed. But third generation computing takes advantage of the new interactive server/client interactive technology like Sun's Java andMicrosoft's Microsoft's ActiveX/CORBA. Users on the client side want to interact in various ways such as perform sensitivity (what-if) type of analyses.

Bandwidth= Capacity (range) of transmission frequencies on a network as expressed in cycles per second (hertz) or bits per second that determines the amount of data, audio, and video that can flow over the network. The higher the frequency, the higher the bandwidth. (See also Baseband, Broadband, Hertz, bps, and Information highway)

Bar codes= Alternate standards for marking products or other items for reading by laser beams. They are used extensively for locating items on videodiscs and CDs. The LaserBarCode was the original standard for CAV discs. This was extended to LaserBarCode2 for CLV discs. The Bar Code CD is an audio standard for CD discs. (See also Videodisc and CD)

Baseband= A network cable that has only one channel for carrying data signals.

Baud= A unit of speed in data transmission, or the maximum speed at which data can be sent down a channel. Baud is often equivalent to bits per second. Named after J. M. E. Baudot (died 1903). (See also bps)

BBS= Bulletin Board Systems on the Internet that provide electronic bulletin board and conferencing services. (See also CWIS and Freenets)

BeVocal = (See Speech Recognition).

BinHex= A file conversion format that converts binary files to ASCII text files.


Bit= A contraction of binary digit, a bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer can hold. Eight bits is equivalent to a byte. The speed at which bits are transmitted or bit rate is usually expressed as bits per second or bps.

BITNET= Because It's Time NETwork is an early network of academic and research professionals. Most users have shifted to e-mail gateways. (See also Internet and Networks)

Blind = (See Disabilities.)

Blog = (See Weblog)

BMP= Bitmap graphics files that are accessible through Windows Paintbrush and most other PC graphics software. (See also Compression, CGM, and JPEG)

Board= A hardware component that fits into the expansion slot of a computer unit and expands the capabilities of the computer. A board can enable the computer to communicate with an external hardware device, such as a CD-ROM. Alternate terms are card, expansion card, interface card, interface board. (See also SCSI, Sound board, Video board, and PCMCIA)

Bookmark= A user-defined place mark that enables the user to return to a particular screen or starting point after accessing related information. Bookmarks may also be used to locate sections on related topics.

bps= bits per second. This is a measure of transfer speed that is commonly used in modems. (See also Bandwidth and Baud)

Branch= Any one of the paths an application can take after it evaluates a specific condition.

Bot = a roBot that usually is a software program that can be good (administering or policing on the network) or bad (causing evil) on the network. Bots commonly are used in real audio chat lines. A WebBot are "smart objects" that can be inserted into web pages to perform tasks that otherwise would require CGI scripting or some other dynamic action programming. WebBots can help set up dynamic chat lines, time image appearances, register and confirm actions, reference annotations, perform calculations, etc. Some HTML editors can be used to create WebBots. Microsoft FrontPage, for example, can be used for:

  • WebBot Confirmation Field component
  • WebBot Include component
  • WebBot Scheduled Image component
  • WebBot Scheduled Include component
  • WebBot Search component
  • WebBot Substitution component
  • WebBot Table of Contents component
  • WebBot Timestamp component

One example of a WebBot is the people search engine at

botnets and phishing on your computer at this very moment:  Forwarded by Jagdish Gangolly
Know your Enemy: Tracking Botnets:  Using honeynets to learn more about Bots ---
The Honeynet Project & Research Alliance 
Last Modified: 13 March 2005

Honeypots are a well known technique for discovering the tools, tactics, and motives of attackers. In this paper we look at a special kind of threat: the individuals and organizations who run botnets. A botnet is a network of compromised machines that can be remotely controlled by an attacker. Due to their immense size (tens of thousands of systems can be linked together), they pose a severe threat to the community. With the help of honeynets we can observe the people who run botnets - a task that is difficult using other techniques. Due to the wealth of data logged, it is possible to reconstruct the actions of attackers, the tools they use, and study them in detail. In this paper we take a closer look at botnets, common attack techniques, and the individuals involved.


Bridge= A device that connects different LANs so a node on one LAN can communicate with a node on another LAN.

Broadband= Network transmission capacity that greatly exceeds capacity required for voice transmission over traditional telephone cables. Broadband networks may have dedicated portions for audio, video, and data or they may allow for capacity switching. (See also Bandwidth, Information highway, Switched network, Networks, and ATM)

Broadcasting = (See webcasting.)

Browser= A type of software that allows you to navigate information databases; examples are Netscape Navigator and NCSA Mosaic.

Browsers= (See Web browsers)

BSP = (See ASP)

Buffer underrun= A common error where the data stream being fed from the CD-R's cache buffer falls behind the laser doing the writing. (See also CD-R)

Bulletin Boards = (See  e-mail )

Bus= The internal pathways (data bus, address bus, and control bus) of wires connecting various parts of a computer. Common standards for buses were Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) 16-bit bus common in AT-compatible PCs, Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) 32-bit buses in IBM PS/2 computers, and Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) 32-bit buses that are backward compatible with ISA adapters. An "expansion bus" is an extension of the data bus and address bus that includes slots for adapter boards. It is better than ISA and EISA for hypermedia authoring to also purchase a "local bus" system in 32-bit or higher capacity with eight or more expansion slots for multimedia options. A local bus connects the CPU with peripherals directly so as to improve performance speed. However, in recent years, the VL local buses are not as good as the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) brainchild of Intel. The term "bus" can also apply to standards for connecting electronic components other than computer components. The term CDBus or consumer electronics bus refers to a home or office automation standard such that components connected through power lines, coaxial cable, infrared connections, and telephone lines will be mutually compatible. (See also VL-Bus and Cache)

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) is the common bus used on PCs.  It is a relatively slow hardware bus an is a small fraction of the speed of FireWire.  The term "FireWire" is the early name given to High Performance Serial Bus.A serial bus developed by Apple Computer and Texas Instruments (IEEE 1394).The High Performance Serial Bus can connect up to 63 devices in a tree-like daisy chain configuration, and transmit data at up to 400 megabits per second.It supports plug and play and peer-to-peer communication between peripheral devices.Wintel (Intel and Microsoft) were spooked by the speed of FireWire and developed new PCs called Easy PCs that use only USB and FireWire in machines that will no longer have the familiar parallel and serial ports.

Bus topology= A physical layout of a LAN where all nodes are connected to a single cable.

Byte= The number of bits used to represent a character.

Bytes= Grouping of eight bits. While a bit can assume only two states, 0 and 1, a byte can store from 0 up to 255 different states. Most of the time a character is stored in a byte. Therefore, a byte can store up to 255 different characters. The standard ASCII character set consists of 128 characters; the additional characters generally used in PC software brings the total number of characters up to 255.


Return to Top of Document

Click on a term or phrase below:

Cache / CAL / Caller ID / Camcorder / Camera / CAPTURE / Capture / Card / Careers / CASE / Castanet / Casting / CAT /CAV / CBT / CD / CD Burning / CDMA / CD Phase Change Dual (PD) / CD Recording / CD32 / CD-3DO / CD-AUDIO / CDBus / CD-DVD / CD-Erasable / CDF / CD+G / CD-I / CD-Karaoke / CDMA/TDMA / CD-MM / CD-PD / CDPD / CD-Photo / CD-R / CD-R2 /CD-RW / CD-Rewritable / CD-ROM / CD-ROM Titles / CD-ROM XA / CD-RW / CD-Stand Alone / CD-Standards /CD-TV / CD-VIS / CD-WORM / CETA / CFML / CGA / CGI /CGM / Channel / Channel Casting / Channel Definition Format (CDF) / Chat Lines / Chipping / CHRP / CISC / Click Fraud / Client / Client-server / Client-server architecture / Clipboard / Clipper Chip / Clock speed / Cloud Computing / CLV / CMC /CMS / Coaxial cable / CODEC / CollabraShare / Collaboration / Collar / COM / Compact disc / Companding / Compression / Computer / Computer Based TrainingCompuServe / Computer Virus / Concurrency Control / Configuration / Configure / Console / Control code / Conventional memory / Cookies / Copeland / Coprocessor / Copying / CORBA / CORE / Costless Collar / CPU / Cracker / Craplet / CRM / Cross-platform / Cryptolope / CWIS / CyberMall / Cyberspace

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view   (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

Cache= A storage area in both RAM (cache memory) and disc drives (cache controllers) that keeps frequently accessed instructions more readily accessible. (See also Bus)

CAL= The most generic of Computer Aided Learning or Computer Assisted Learning terms. CAL encompasses in-class lecture aids, learning materials for computer labs, electronic books, learning materials available on networks such as the Internet, and any other learning aids that are used with computers or related devices such as compact disc (CD) players connected to television sets. Especially see the concept of a shell.  (See also Authoring, Computer Based Training, Course Management Systems, Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Networks)

Caller ID= Caller identification of the phone number of person placing a call to another number. Some states now allow telephone owners to have visual displays of the caller ID.

Camcorder= (See Video camera and Video from digital (DV) camcorders.  Also see Video.)

Camera= (See Dry camera)

CAPTURE= a NetWare utility program used to redirect output from a printer port on the workstation to a network printer.

Capture= (See Screen capturing.  Also see Video.)

Card= (See Board)

Careers= (See Authoring)

CASE = Computer Assisted Software Engineering tools for automating information systems design and programming. The CASE tools are listed and extensively explained at .  See also Database and MDA..

Castanet = (See Webcasting.)

Casting = (See Webcasting.)

CAT= That subset of CAL that entails Computer Aided Teaching. This subset is restricted to software designed for authoring and/or delivery of learning materials in a classroom or on line in a computer network or teleconference in which the instructor is present and using the CAT materials as an aid to his or her teaching.

CAV= Constant Angular Velocity playback in magnetic and laser discs where the disc rotates at a constant speed. Relative to CLV variable speeds, the CAV approach results in varying data retrieval times that depend upon where the read/write head is located relative to the disc spindle. Authors of CAV disc products try to locate commonly accessed files closer to spindle. In videodiscs, CAV discs hold only 30 minutes of video on each side of a 12-inch disc. However, CAV facilitates searching for individual frames. (See also CLV)

CBT= Computer-Based Training in which the computer becomes a tutor for asynchronous learning that adjusts to each student's learning pace.  CBT that contains artificial intelligence for adapting training requirements and options to different aptitudes and skills of individual students is referred to in military training as Intelligent CBT (ICBT) to distinguish ICBT from traditional CBT that does not automatically adapt to skills and needs of different learners. (Also see  Authoring, Computer Based Training, Computer Aided Learning,  Course Management Systems, Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Networks).

CD= A "small" injection-molded optical disc containing digitized information that has been recorded with a laser device and must be read on a laser device. The term "small" generally refers to a disc that is 8 cm or 12 cm (4.72 inches) in diameter as opposed to videodiscs that typically are much larger in diameter. Also, videodiscs usually are restricted to analog inputs from videotape whereas CDs rely on inputs from computer tape or other digitized platforms. Although there are several types of CDs for audio, television, and computer playback, the CD-Audio and CD-ROM discs have overwhelming shares of the market. For example, Kim (1994) discusses why CD-ROM discs are replacing floppy discs in a "ground swell." CD-ROM discs now hold approximately 680 Mb (i.e., 680 million characters) although compression techniques make it possible to record CDs from even larger computer files. Usually CDs have slower access speeds than magnetic hard drives, but speeds are improving and playback of video is now possible on both CD-ROM and CD-I players. Although the best known CDs once were those that contain only audio recordings, there is a rapidly growing market for various types of CDs that contain computer files and/or files that can be read on special devices connected to television sets. (See also Bar codes, CAV, CLV, Photo CD, Videodisc, Minidisc, CD-Stand Alone, Nintendo/SGI Cartridges, and Laserdisc)

CD Burning= (See CD-R)


What is CDMA technology?

From The Washington Post on February 18, 2006

A joint venture between Nokia Corp. and Sanyo Electronic Corp. means that they will now control about 20 percent of the world's market for phones using CDMA technology. What is CDMA?

core digital multipe alignment
code division multiple access
control digital management access
control density media attention

CDMA, which stands for "code division multiple access," is used in the United States by Verizon Wireless and Sprint Nextel Corp., as well as in Japan, India, China and South Korea. In other markets, including Europe, the Middle East and Africa, GSM, or Global System for Mobile communications, is the dominant standard.

CD Phase Change Dual (PD)= (See Phase Change Dual)

CD Recording= (See CD-R and CD-DVD)

CD32= The 32-bit multimedia CD system that plays on Amiga Computers from Commodore Corporation. These CDs are used for CD movies, games, and educational material on Amiga Computers. The future of the CD32 is clouded by the 1994 declaration of bankruptcy by Commodore Corporation. (See also Amiga)

CD-3DO= A type of compact disc designed originally to compete against CD-I and CD-MM for interactive television set entertainment and, possibly, education. A promoter named Trip Hawkins put together an impressive grouping of Hollywood movie studios and other developers of interactive videos using MPEG compression. Large companies such as Panasonic, Sanyo, and others are producing playback machines for TV sets. For an older  review see NewMedia, August 1993, p. 21.  For a more recent review see USA Today, May 28, 1998 where it is announced that Trip Hawkins launched a comeback after the early financial disaster of his 3DO venture.   The 3DO video games lost out completely to competitors like Matsushita, Philips, Sony, and Victor who agreed upon a competing CD-Karaoke standard. Prospects once seemed high that this would emerge a winner. In 1993, 3DO stock soared in price. Time Magazine, January 3, 1994, p. 76, ranked the Panasonic CD-3DO Multiplayer as Number 1 in a listing and discussion of the top ten "best" new products of 1993. (In that same listing, the Motorola PowerPC Chip ranked Number 6 and PDA products came in at Rank 7 ahead of Mattus Ice Cream at Rank 9.) However, in 1994, sales of 3DO players have fallen far short of expectations (except in Japan) and the 3DO stock price fell from a high of over $45 per share to less than $15. Hawkins invested millions more of his own money in the company. "This maker of multimedia game players is fighting for survival" according to Newsweek on June 13, 1994, p. 40.  Hawkins and his 3DO machines all but disappeared from the public.  However, in May of 1998 they resurfaced 3DO unveiled 11 video games and targets to become a small and more focused video game maker.   (See also Games, CD-VIS, CD-I, CD-MM, CD-R, and CD-Karaoke)

CD-AUDIO= A CD that contains only audio playback. These were invented by Philips and Sony and have become extremely popular in the music recording industry. In order for these discs to be compatible with consumer playback machines, most discs are recorded according to the CD-Digital Audio "Reebok" standard.

CDBus= (See Bus)

CD-DVD= Digital Video (or Versatile) Disc combines the best features of CD-ROM size and data storage with capacity for video storage beyond that of videodiscs. DVD is so revolutionary that in the next decade it will probably replace VHS videotapes and CD-ROMs and videodiscs.

Blu-ray set to be DVD standard after Toshiba white flag:  Alas most of us will need new DVD players (probably new computers)
Sony's Blu-ray looks set to become the standard for high-definition DVDs after Toshiba signalled Monday that it may give up in a long-running format battle, to the relief of investors. Toshiba Corp. is reviewing its HD DVD business and "a complete withdrawal is one of the options it is considering," an industry source told AFP on condition of anonymity. Blu-ray and HD DVD -- which are incompatible -- can provide cinematic-quality images and multimedia features but the players come at a much steeper price than current-generation DVDs. The demise of HD DVD could spur sales of next-generation DVD players among consumers, who have been reluctant to gamble on one of the formats, analysts said, although Blu-ray was already far ahead in sales, particularly in Japan. Blu-ray can store more data than HD DVD but was initially seen as more expensive to make. Nonetheless, a growing number of Hollywood studios and retailers have decided to go exclusively with Blu-ray. US giant Wal-Mart gave a decisive boost to Blu-ray last week when it said it would stop selling HD DVDs.
PhysOrg, February 18, 2008 ---

 Jensen Comment
 The question for you is whether you television sets and computers can play Blu-ray disks?
 For example, Dell and HP strongly supports the move to Blu-ray, but we have to expect this is partly due to Dell and HP users who will now buy new computers.
 Dell now takes orders for a Blu-ray laptop ---

Neflix enthusiasts like me will have to enable their accounts to get Blue-ray DVD movies ---

February 19, 2008 reply from David Albrecht [albrecht@PROFALBRECHT.COM]

I'm pretty ignorant here.

(1)  Will Blue Ray work with any HD TV?
(2)  When standard DVDs are no longer produced, will the Blu-Ray DVDs work on the regular DVD player on my laptop?
(3)  If the answer to (2) is no, then will it work to pop out my old DVD drive from my computer and purchase/install a new Blu-Ray drive, or will the lack of HD on my computer screen (machine is 15 months old) destine it to the junk heap.
(4)  Is all the bother really worth it?  I mean, I watch DVD movies on my laptop, and I'm not seeing HD at all.  Everything seems fine.  In fact, all of this is better than anything I ever had before.
(5)  I pick up my DVD movies at the Walmart $5 bargain bin, and at pawn shops.  How long until I can start picking up blu-ray DVDs for the same prices at the same places?
(6)  Will getting HD improve my BMI?

David Albrecht
LD in Ohio

February 19, 2008 reply from Bob Jensen

What pretty well sealed the deal for Sony’s Blu-Ray was when Wal-Mart adopted this standard worldwide for movie disks and players.

I don’t have all the answers to your questions David, but the two technologies are not compatible. On our computers most of us have CD drives, older-style DVD drives, or in on occasion Toshiba’s standard HD-DVD drives. The CD disks and older-style DVD data disks are cheap and will probably be around for quite a while for data file recording and reading. The HD-DVD recorders and players will go the way of Betamax when the VCR standard beat out Betamax. Original DVD drives would not play HD-DVD or Blu-Ray movie disks. However, HD-DVD players could playback older-style DVD disks that you may have recorded on your computer or purchased from vendors of data and software.

HD-DVD drives will not play Blu-Ray DVD disks that will become the new equivalent of the VCR back when we rented movies on VCR cartridges and recorded television programs on VCR recorders. Older style DVD drives that are on many computers will not play Blu-Ray or HD-DVD disks.

You can get answers from the following links:

Technical ---

The bottom line is that we will have to buy Blu-Ray drives for our television sets rather quickly. Folks who purchased archives of Betamax and HD-DVD movies will be out of luck just like those of us with boxes full of 8-Track music cartridges are out of luck. You will soon have to purchase a Blu-Ray player to watch DVD movies. You will also be buying Blu-Ray recorders to record television shows for your personal use.

Colleges will have to spend a lot of money putting Blu-Ray technology in electronic classrooms and labs. Even more costly will be getting Blu-Ray technology on faculty and staff computers. This will take time. It will be possible to replace the DVD drives without replacing the computers, but my guess is that many colleges will wait until faculty/staff members are due for new computer upgrades. In the meantime you will be able to buy blank CD and older-style DVD disks for some time at places like Staples. HD-DVD blanks will disappear much more quickly.

 Bob Jensen


February 19, 2008 reply from Mac Wright [Mac.Wright@VU.EDU.AU]

So today Toshiba has thrown in the towel. But what is next? from the time Sony threw in the Betamax towel until Video CDs was (I estimate) about 15 years. then DVDs arrived, then High speed internet, now Blue ray, In the end it is up to the market (probably on the Asian Continent and Indian Sub Continent) to decide how they will take their dose of movies, and with what new technology it will be delivered (and there are very few Wal -Mart stores out there!).

Kind regards,

Mac Wright
Co-ordinator Aviation Program
Victoria University
Melbourne Australia

February 19, 2008 reply from Bob Jensen

Hi Mac,

Interestingly, Barry Rice and I had a somewhat similar debate when Barry first started the AECM. Barry argued that the CD had no future because other portable hard drives were better ways of storing data. He was correct only to a point especially with respect to overwriting files (no CD-RW at the time of this debate). Portable hard drive cartridges in those days cost about $100 and stored roughly the same amount of data as a CD. Some types of data were difficult to burn on CDs in those days. Also remember that there was no flash memory in those days such that hard drive cartridges relied on mechanical readers prone to breakdowns.

You’ve got to remember that in mid-1980s it was much more difficult to download data on the Internet and hard drive capacity on a PC was less than 1 Gb such that storage was nowhere near as cheap as it is today.

My counterpoint to Barry was that we could buy a blank CD for about $3 in those days as compared to comparable storage costing $100 on portable hard drives such as those Iomega cartridges that were subject to high failure rates relative to the less expensive CD disks. Certainly my old CD stored files are still around today whereas all my Omega cartridges and drives are kaput.

In any case, I think the Blu-Ray DVD disks will be around for at least a decade (no computing hardware technology lasts forever). Reasons include:

  • You don't have to pay for an expensive monthly broadband connection to rent or buy a DVD disk.

  • Hollywood studios are embracing Blu-Ray DVDs as the sales and rental medium of the future for users who cannot or do not want to download movies, such as the many television lovers in the world who do not use computers. Also, in the heart of Africa or the Amazon where there is no live TV reception, users with TV sets can still use DVD disks on television sets.

  • Even though outfits like Netflix now make it possible to download movies, this is still less popular than the tremendous disk rental service that Netfilx offers these days for playback on television sets (I love this service). Although I could download movies on my computers, I prefer to get the DVD disks that I can watch in comfort of my Lazyboy chair in front of a large-screen television set. Already Netflix has an option for renting DVD disks in the Blu-Ray format.

  • DVD rental and sales disks in stores appeal to browsers and impulse shoppers. I would never think of buying movie on sale at Wal-Mart unless I stumbled over a display of on-sale legendary movies in the in the aisle.


Blank DVD disks are still very cheap ways to store lots of data over a long time and less prone to failure than any other alternatives.

Bob Jensen

February 19, 2008 message from David Fordham, James Madison University [fordhadr@JMU.EDU]

Is it really progress?

My grad classes have some interesting takes on this stuff. Few of them know what an 8-track cartridge is, and I doubt anyone on this list remembers magnetic wire recorders (before the invention of tape) which my dad used when I was a little kid.

So what is *real* progress?

I make students question the use of the word "standard". This allows some very good discussion in graduate systems technology classes.

For instance, I take issue with the statement "the market will decide". See which is a part of my grad class from two years ago.

To quote from a paragraph late in that essay, "While the media pundits call this a "standard", it really isn't a consumer-level standard at all, but rather a "producer-level" standard. Calling the Blu-Ray-vs-HDDVD a standards war is like calling the "Boeing vs. Airbus" a standards war. What the consumer wants is irrelevant. A few large companies will decide which format they will use, because to the consumer, both deliver what is essentially the same product. Once several of the producers have selected one format over the other (due more to politics, payoffs, kickbacks, and the good-ol-boy system than any valid reason), the consumers will simply end up taking what they are given. Think about it. When was the last time an airline asked you which plane you prefer, an Airbus or a Boeing?

You were buying the end-product: the trip to Orlando, the video image, or whatever. As long as the end-product was delivered, the minor conveniences along the way were irrelevant. As that essay points out, failure to deliver convenience to consumers doesn't really matter anymore any way, a la big banks, phone companies, cellular providers, credit card companies, etc. In our inter-related technology, the need for compatibility overrides the market's wishes in terms of ALL the petty stuff. And since the large producers make the big decisions, ... well, you get the idea. The market isn't what decides.

That essay is the springboard for some interesting and thought-provoking discussions on accounting system design. Yes, accounting systems design. Think big.

David Fordham
James Madison University


CD-Erasable = an alternate term for CD-RW compact discs that can be erased and written over with new and/or updated computer files. For a more complete discussion see CD-DVD. The key feature of CD-RW is that these CDs will play on newer CD-ROM drives. This was not the case with older CD-Erasable discs. An older type of CD rewriting technology unveiled by Sony Corporation in 1993 that will allow for erasing and recording over CD discs that could not be played back on CD-ROM drives. Although some companies have sold rewritable CDs for some time, the playback hardware has not become a standard like CD-ROM playback drives. In 1997, however, virtually all vendors of CD recording hardware offer a CD-RW drive that will play and record discs that will play on CD-ROM drives. This technology brings the world of CDs closer to the world of videotapes and floppy discs. However, unlike floppy discs holding 1.44 Mb of data, the CDs will hold 650 Mb of data. This makes the recording and revision of multimedia files in a cheap storage medium (possibly less than one dollar) a feasible option. See CD-DVD.

CDF = (See RDF)

CD+G= Audio CD plus still-image graphics such as with Photo CD. Although these are commonly displayed on television screens, they are less interactive than CD-I, CD-VIS, CD-R, CD-Karaoke, CD-3DO, CD-MM, and CD-TV. For a more technical definition see   .(See also Photo CD and CD-Karaoke)

CD-I= Compact Disc-Interactive compact disc (developed by the Philips electronics conglomerate headquartered in The Netherlands) that will play back visual as well as audio CD entertainment and learning materials in a hypermedia format on a television set. These discs require special players for CD-Karaoke that connect to a television much like a VCR machine. Players cost from $400 to $1,800, with portable players available that will fit in a briefcase. Video stores are now selling and renting CD-I movie, game, encyclopedia, travel, art, and other types of discs. Realistically, authoring workstations cost around $50,000 and higher. Typically they have a remote control device or joy stick for hypermedia controls. Philips got the market jump on CD-MM from Sony and CD-3DO from Hawkins. Various CD-I games, encyclopedias, hypermedia art books, and other consumer products are available on CD-I discs in department stores and video stores. Movies on CD-I may now be purchased or rented from video stores. Unlike many of the computer game competitors such as Data Discman and Sega, it is possible to link Mac or PC desktop computers to other hardware that allows professors to author their own learning materials on CD-I discs. To be compatible with CD-I playback machines, these discs should be recorded on the CD-ROM XA (extended Architecture) "Yellowbook" standard. OptImage (515-225-7000) has new high-end MPEG Digital Video Authoring software for CD-I and CD-XA. The Education Labels Group of Philips Media (800-945-4061 or 310-444-6613) under the direction of Bernard Luskin, a pioneer in TV education materials, works with educators to develop CD-I discs for education. With the initial market shock of CD-3DO, the future of CD-I and CD-MM is seriously in doubt, although much will hinge on the future cost of desktop authoring of CD-3DO titles. See CD for market share data. Miller and Miller (1992), and Phillips IMS (1992a,b,c). New software called CD-IT!ALL from OptImage(515-225-7000) allows Mac users to record CD-ROM discs directly from the Mac to certain types of CD-R recorders such as the Philips or Kodak recorder with an IS0 9660 option. However, to record CD-I discs the CD-IT!ALL software will not replace the Media Mogul software and the emulator hardware required between the Mac computer and the CD-R recorder. (See also CD-DVD, CD-VIS, CD-R, CD-Karaoke, CD-3DO, CD-MM, CD-TV, Games, and Photo CD)

CD-Karaoke= The video CD format that JVC and Philips initially agreed upon that eventually became the standard Video CD format agreed upon by major vendors such as Matushita, Philips, Sony, and Victor of Japan. Initially, vendors were trying to develop CDs for television sets that each had a different standard analogous to having different track gauges for different railroads. The agreed upon video standard in 1993 at last makes it possible to cross platforms in CDs for television. The announcement is reported in Videography, September 1993, p. 10. (See CD for market share data. See also CD-R, CD-I, CD-3DO, CD-MM, Games, and Photo CD)

CDMA/TDMA= Code Division Multiple Access and Time Division Multiple Access dual-mode cellular telephones that aid in the receiving of fax and computer network data on computers and PDAs. (See also Wireless Glossary of Terms, CDPD, Networks and PDA)

CD-MM= Older Sony CDs that compete with CD-VIS, CD-I, and CD-3DO discs that also play back visual as well has audio entertainment and learning materials in a hypermedia format on a television set. These will be replaced with newer players for CD-DVD. CD-MM discs required special players that connected to a television much like a VCR machine. They compete with CD-I discs but are not the same size and will not play on CD-I players. Only discs developed by Sony Corporation will run on CD-MM players. Various CD-MM games, encyclopedias, hypermedia art books, and other consumer products are available on CD-I discs in department stores and video stores. Whereas CD-I and CD-ROM discs may be recorded on CD-R blanks in home recording devices, it is less likely that CD-MM discs will ever be produced outside professional studios. Users will thus be limited by what Sony develops and promotes. In 1993, Sony agreed to a new CD-format that is more in line with other players in the market. With the initial market shock of CD-3DO, the future of CD-I and CD-MM is seriously in doubt. (See also CD-DVD, CD-3DO, CD-Karaoke, CD-VIS, and CD-I)

CD-PD= (SeeWireless Glossary of Terms and  Phase Change Dual (PD))

CDPD= Cellular Digital Packet Data technology that facilitates more traffic on existing cellular networks. CDPD hardware is required for sending e-mail to PDAs. (See also Wireless Glossary of Terms and PDA)

CD-Photo= (See Photo CD)

CD-R or CD-RW= a term used for machines (drives) that will record CD laser discs that will read on standard CD-ROM drives. CD "encoding" depicts the recording (burning or transfer of files) to a CD, whereas CD "decoding" depicts the reading of those files. The term CD-Erasable in the early 1990s depicted recording of erasable CDs that could not be read only in special drives rather than CD-ROM drives. The first CD-RW drive on the market (in March 1997) is from RICOH for $595. Now CD-RW is the latest thing in erasable CDs. In times past, CD-R depicted a recordable CD blank disc also known as a CD-WORM disc. CD-R is now an obsolete term since, in 1997, CD-RW discs also known as CD-RW or CD-Rewritable discs made "read only memory" a thing of the past. Of course it is always possible to file protect and computer files in any type of storage so that they cannot be overwritten. In 1997, virtually all the manufacturers of CD-RW recording machines for CD-ROMs will offer CD-Erasable drives that will likely replace most CD-R technology up to 1997. Laser recording machines typically connect to a computer's SCSI or IDE controller. High-end desktop computers now come with CD-R or CD-RW recorders and players all in the same drive. Costs of a CD-R recorder have fallen by over 90% to less than $800. Recording CDs of any type is often referred to as "burning" or "baking." A CD recorder will not record every type of CD. Virtually all of them record CD-ROM discs and some will record CD-I discs. Rewritable versions are also available, but these will not play back on standard CD-ROM drives. CD-DVD recording requires more expensive hardware. Some record CD-Karaoke with appropriate software. Some CDs such as CD-MM and CD-3DO cannot usually be recorded on home recorders. CD-ROM and other types of CDs can be reproduced for less than $1 per disc. If you are purchasing a CD-R recorder, the high-end software and hardware for recording is reviewed in NewMedia, February 10, 1997, pp. 53-69. (See also CD-DVD, CD-Erasable, WORM, CD-I, CD-3DO, CD-MM, Phase Change Dual (PD), Games, and Photo CD)

CD-R2= (See CD-DVD)

CD-RW or CD-Rewritable= (See CD-DVD )

CD-ROM= Compact Disc-Read Only Memory compact discs. This is now an obsolete term since, in 1997, CD-RW discs also known as CD-Rewritable discs made "read only memory" a thing of the past. These 5.25 inch discs can be recorded, written over at will (unless file protected), and played back from computers connected to proper recording and/or playback drives. The CD-RW drives become like hard drives or floppy disc drives in that CD-RW discs may store files that can be executed in software packages such as word processors, spreadsheet software, ToolBook books, and HyperCard stacks. Some users want them to serve as auxiliary storage devices for computer text, audio, and video files. CD-RW drives will eventually be replaced by CD-DVD drives for DVD and DVD-RAM discs that are the same size but hold more than 20 times as much data. The problem for DVD is that CD-ROM drives exist in millions of computers and it will take time for the newer DVD hardware to take over as a standard. Presently, it is also much cheaper to record (encode) CD-RW discs using CD-R recorders costing less than $800. (See also CD-DVD and CD-ROM titles)

CD-ROM Titles= Books and games available on CD-ROM discs. Comparisons are difficult, because there are thousands in hundreds of markets. For example, see ADAM for one of the top medical and science titles that has done very well in a narrow market. The top titles in the general market according to PC Computing, December 1994, p. 206 are Microsoft Bookshelf (206-882-8080), Myst (415-382-4400), and Normandy (302-986-0444). PC World, December 1994, in a cover feature rates a larger number of titles by topic areas: One especially noteworthy CD-ROM title that has been popular in the consumer market is David Macaulay's The Way Things Work from Dorling Kindersley Publishing (800-225-3362). The number of CD-ROM titles has been nearly doubling each year for the past several years. It appears this will be the most popular electronic publishing medium for the rest of this decade. (See also ADAM)



CD-Stand Alone= Reference to audio/video players that stand alone in the sense of not needing a computer. The term generally refers to set-top video boxes for network television or to CD players such as CD-3DO, CD-I, CD-MM, CD-TV, CD-VIS, etc. (See also Set-top box and CD)

CD-Standards = See

CD-TV= Commodore Dynamic-Total Vision player manufactured by Commodore Corporation to compete with CD-I, CD-MM, CD-VIS, and CD-3DO CD players for television sets. CD-TV discs are viewed in television sets from a CD-TV player or on Amiga video computers. They may not, however, be played on CD-ROM players. See CD for market share data. The market share of CD-TV is so small that its future is quite uncertain and is clouded by the 1994 declaration of bankruptcy by Commodore Corporation. (See also CD-I, CD-3DO, CD-MM, CD-VIS, Games, and Photo CD)

CD-VIS= The Memorex MD-2500 Visual Information System CD player marketed by Radio Shack that competes with CD-MM, CD-I, and CD-3DO discs that also play back visual as well has audio interactive entertainment on television sets. The Memorex MD-2500 requires no host computer to perform interactive operations from a remote control. Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia disc and some other discs are available, but the market share of CD-VIS never became great enough to attract widespread authorship of VIS discs. At present there are very few titles and interest in CD-VIS relative to CD-I and CD-3DO is waning.


CETA= Center for Educational Technology in Accounting (817-565-3090) at The University of North Texas, P.O. Box 13677, College of Business Administration, The University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-3677. CETA is no longer operational.  CETA once served as a clearinghouse of information on use of technology in accounting education and research. 

CFML = Cold Fusion Markup Language for creation of dynamic and interactive Web pages.  Along with the usual Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tags that determine page layout and appearance, the page creator uses CFML tags to bring in content based on the results of a database query or user input. CMFL is a proprietary language developed for use with ColdFusion, a product from Allaire.  See also Database and HTML.

CGA= (See Graphics adapter)

CGI= Common Gateway Interface is one of the most popular UNIX-based programs/devices that supply interfaces between browsers and servers on the Internet. A standard for running external programs from a World-Wide Web HTTP server. CGI specifies how to pass dynamic components to the executing program as part of the HTTP request. For example, it will allow answers typed into an HTML form on the client computer to be tabulated and stored in a database on the server-side computer. Commonly, the server-side CGI program will generate some HTML which will be passed back to the client's browser. For example, it might report to the client user that the form is not filled out properly or report the invoice total of an order. CGI allows the returned HTML (or other document type) to depend in any arbitrary way on the request. The CGI program can, for example, access information in a database and format the results as HTML. CGI is not a programming language. There are various "CGI" scripting programs. Perl is a common choice for writing CGI scripts. in UNIX code. Some HTTP servers require CGI programs to reside in a special directory, often "/cgi-bin" but better servers provide ways to distinguish CGI programs so they can be kept in the same directories as the HTML files to which they are related. In order to improve performance, Netscape devised NSAPI and Microsoft developed the ISAPI standard which allow CGI-like tasks to run as part of the host server process, thus avoiding the overhead of creating a new process to handle each CGI invocation.

CGM= Computer Graphics Metafile international standard for 16-bit color graphics. CGM files cross platforms between PCs and Macs and can be generated in most graphics, paintbrush, and draw software. (See also Graphics and Cross-platform)

Channel= Transmission line that can carry the sound of a separate MIDI instrument. Each MIDI port allows up to 16 separate channels for sending or receiving data. Each channel can function as a separate instrument in an ensemble, each using its own patch and responding independently to continuous controllers. (See also MIDI). 

Channel has another meaning on the World Wide Web.  (See Webcasting.)

Channel Definition Format (CDF) = (see Resource Description Format (RDF))

Channel Casting/Surfing =  (See Webcasting.)

Chat Lines or Chat Rooms = real time internet conversations (written or oral) that transpire in real (synchronous) time as opposed to conferencing (e.g., message board posting and topic classification." There are many sources for free chat software downloads. One such source is at Comparisons with bulletin boards, email groups, chat rooms, etc. are made in the e-mail definition of this glossary. See e-mail definitionIRC, Listserv, USENet, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, webcasting, andtelephony.

Chipping (See Security)

CHRP = Common Hardware Reference Platform architecture in processors for Power PCs. This term has been replaced by "PowerPC Reference Platform" and is IBM's open system standard intended to ensure compatibility among PowerPC-based systems built by different companies.

CISC= Complex Instruction Set Computing chipsets such as the Intel family of popular 386, 486, and Pentium competitors and the Motorola 680x0 family in Mac computers. These were the most popular processors until the RISC alternatives entered the market. The future of CISC versus RISC is now up in the air. (See also Pentium, USENet, and RISC)


Click fraud


  • In online advertising, click fraud involves sending fraudulent clicks to Cost Per Click (CPC) advertisers. The clicks can be artificially generated via automated technology methods (such as hitbots) or via manual clicking for the purpose of debiting CPC advertiser accounts or increasing CPC network partner/affiliate commission revenues. ...

Yahoo settles "click fraud" lawsuit
Yahoo Inc. will consider refunding money to thousands of advertisers dating back to January 2004 and pay $4.95 million in attorney fees to settle a class-action lawsuit alleging the Internet powerhouse has been profiting from bogus sales referrals generated through a sham known as ''click fraud.'' The agreement, given preliminary approval Wednesday by U.S. District Judge Christina Snyder in Los Angeles, doesn't limit Yahoo's liability -- one of several contrasts to a settlement reached in March by online search engine leader Google Inc. to resolve a class-action lawsuit over the same issue . . . Although Yahoo doesn't know how much money it will end up refunding, company officials seem confident it will be a relatively small amount. Yahoo's ad revenue totaled $9.1 billion from January 2004 through March of this year. "We want to keep our advertisers happy,'' said Yahoo lawyer Reggie Davis. ''Whatever credits are owed will be 100 percent forthcoming.''
"Update: Click Fraud Class-Action Suits at Yahoo and Google," MIT's Technology Review, July 3, 2006 ---


Client= A computer that has access to services over a computer network. The computer providing the services is a server. Note: in an X-11 environment, the meanings of client and server are reversed. See Database.

Client-server= A corporate computing trend that is gradually replacing the old way of conducting business--large mainframe computers connected to terminals. In the new arrangement, company software applications run on a midrange computer (the server) that is connected over networks to PCs (clients). (See also Server)

Client-server architecture= An information-passing scheme that works as follows: a client program, such as Mosaic, sends a request to a server. The server takes the request, disconnects from the client and processes the request. When the request is processed, the server reconnects to the client program and the information is transferred to the client. This architecture differs from traditional Internet databases where the client connects to the server and runs the program from the remote site. Note: in an X-11 environment, the meanings of client and server are reversed.

Clipboard= A holding device that contains the most recently copied or cut text or image such that contents of the clipboard can be pasted one or more times into other parts of the document at hand or other documents. It is usually possible to cross between different software options such as between Windows programs.

Clipper Chip


The Clipper Chip is a cryptographic device being promoted by the U.S. government. Its purported advantage is that it provides a standard for securing private voice communication. With Clipper, however, the government has the opportunity to obtain decryption keys that are held in escrow by two government agencies. Although the Clipper proposal requires legal authorization to obtain these keys, the history of illegal domestic surveillance by Federal agencies makes the existence of this "back-door" decryption channel a cause for concern.

Also see security.

Clock speed= The speed of the processor is measured with the clock frequency. The processor consistently works internally at the same clock frequency. The IBM PC has a clock frequency of 4.77 MHz (Megahertz). Compatibles sometimes use higher frequencies, but higher speeds may create compatibility problems.

Cloud Computing=---

Check out some recent cloud computing stories on

  • Cloud Computing's Perfect Storm?: An initiative involving Intel, Yahoo, and HP will use large-scale research projects to test a new Internet-based computing infrastructure.
  • Lost in the Clouds: MobileMe is facing problems endemic to cloud computing.
  • TR10: Offline Web Applications: Adobe's Kevin Lynch believes that computing applications will become more powerful when they take advantage of the browser and the desktop.

"How Cloud Computing Is Changing the World:  A major shift in the way companies obtain software and computing capacity is under way as more companies tap into Web-based applications," Business Week, August 4, 2008 --- 

At first, just a handful of employees at Sanmina-SCI (SANM) began using Google Apps (GOOG) for tasks like e-mail, document creation, and appointment scheduling. Now, just six months later, almost 1,000 employees of the electronics manufacturing company go online to use Google Apps in place of the comparable Microsoft (MSFT) tools. "We have project teams working on a global basis and to help them collaborate effectively, we use Google Apps," says Manesh Patel, chief information officer of Sanmina-SCI, a company with $10.7 billion in annual revenue. In the next three years, the number of Google Apps users may rise to 10,000, or about 25% of the total, Patel estimates.

San Jose (Calif.)-based Sanmina and Google are at the forefront of a fundamental shift in the way companies obtain software and computing capacity. A host of providers including Amazon (AMZN), (CRM), IBM (IBM), Oracle (ORCL), and Microsoft are helping corporate clients use the Internet to tap into everything from extra server space to software that helps manage customer relationships. Assigning these computing tasks to some remote location—rather than, say, a desktop computer, handheld machine, or a company's own servers—is referred to collectively as cloud computing (BusinessWeek, 4/24/08), and it's catching on across Corporate America.

The term "cloud computing" encompasses many areas of tech, including software as a service, a software distribution method pioneered by about a decade ago. It also includes newer avenues such as hardware as a service, a way to order storage and server capacity on demand from Amazon and others. What all these cloud computing services have in common, though, is that they're all delivered over the Internet, on demand, from massive data centers.

A Sea Change in Computing Some analysts say cloud computing represents a sea change in the way computing is done in corporations. Merrill Lynch (MER) estimates that within the next five years, the annual global market for cloud computing will surge to $95 billion. In a May 2008 report, Merrill Lynch estimated that 12% of the worldwide software market would go to the cloud in that period.

Those vendors that can adjust their product lines to meet the needs of large cloud computing providers stand to profit. Companies like IBM, Dell (DELL), and Hewlett-Packard (HPQ), for instance, are moving aggressively in this direction. On Aug. 1, IBM said it would spend $360 million to build a cloud computing data center in Research Triangle Park, N.C., bringing to nine its total of cloud computing centers worldwide. Dell is also targeting this market. The computer marker supplies products to some of the largest cloud computing providers and Web 2.0 companies, including Facebook, Microsoft, Amazon, and Yahoo (YHOO). "We created a whole new business just to build custom products for those customers," Dell CEO Michael Dell says.

Continued in article

"Google's Cloud Looms Large: How might expanding Google's cloud-computing service alter the digital world?," by Kate Greene, MIT's Technology Review, December 3, 2007 --- 

To know how you'll be using computers and the Internet in the coming years, it's instructive to consider the Google employee: most of his software and data--from pictures and videos, to presentations and e-mails--reside on the Web. This makes the digital stuff that's valuable to him equally accessible from his home computer, a public Internet café, or a Web-enabled phone. It also makes damage to a hard drive less important. Recently, Sam Schillace, the engineering director in charge of collaborate Web applications at Google, needed to reformat a defunct hard drive from a computer that he used for at least six hours a day. Reformatting, which completely erases all the data from a hard drive, would cause most people to panic, but it didn't bother Schillace. "There was nothing on it I cared about" that he couldn't find stored on the Web, he says.

Schillace's digital life, for the most part, exists on the Internet; he practices what is considered by many technology experts to be cloud computing. Google already lets people port some of their personal data to the Internet and use its Web-based software. Google Calendar organizes events, Picasa stores pictures, YouTube holds videos, Gmail stores e-mails, and Google Docs houses documents, spreadsheets, and presentations. But according to a Wall Street Journal story, the company is expected to do more than offer scattered puffs of cloud computing: it will launch a service next year that will let people store the contents of entire hard drives online. Google doesn't acknowledge the existence of such a service. In an official statement, the company says, "Storage is an important component of making Web apps fit easily into consumers' and business users' lives ... We're always listening to our users and looking for ways to update and improve our Web applications, including storage options, but we don't have anything to announce right now." Even so, many people in the industry believe that Google will pull together its disparate cloud-computing offerings under a larger umbrella service, and people are eager to understand the consequences of such a project.

To be sure, Google isn't the only company invested in online storage and cloud computing. There are other services today that offer a significant amount of space and software in the cloud. Amazon's Simple Storage Service, for instance, offers unlimited and inexpensive online storage ($0.15 per gigabyte per month). AOL provides a service called Xdrive with a capacity of 50 gigabytes for $9.95 per month (the first five gigabytes are free). And Microsoft offers Windows Live SkyDrive, currently with a one-gigabyte free storage limit.

But Google is better positioned than most to push cloud computing into the mainstream, says Thomas Vander Wal, founder of Infocloud Solutions, a cloud-computing consultancy. First, millions of people already use Google's online services and store data on its servers through its software. Second, Vander Wal says that the culture at Google enables his team to more easily tie together the pieces of cloud computing that today might seem a little scattered. He notes that Yahoo, Microsoft, and Apple are also sitting atop huge stacks of people's personal information and a number of online applications, but there are barriers within each organization that could slow down the process of integrating these pieces. "It could be," says Vander Wal, "that Google pushes the edges again where everybody else has been stuck for a while."

Continued in article

Bob Jensen's threads on Google are at

CLV= Constant Linear Velocity playback in magnetic and laser discs where the disc rotates at varying speeds. Relative to CAV constant speeds, the CAV approach results in constant data retrieval times that do not depend upon where the read/write head is located relative to the disc spindle. CLV videodiscs hold up to 60 minutes of video per side of a 12-inch disc. However, CLV discs cannot be searched for individual frames as effectively as CAV discs. (See also CAV)

CMC = Cmputer Mediated Communication, a very broad term that encompasses chat lines, virtual communities, and other forms of communication. See IRC, Collaboration, and Virtual. See also Groupware.

CMS= That subset of CAL that entails Course Management Systems. This software is defined by the "core" attributes listed in Chapter 3. Chief among these attributes are utilities that allow instructors to keep student records, call up examination templates and questions, administer examinations, track student learning in course modules, and randomly access lecture and case materials. CMS software options compared in Chapter 3 are Quest, TourGuide, LessonBuilder, Tencore, Course Builder, HyperGraphics, Authorware, and Peak. Present CMS leaders are Quest for Windows and DOS and Macromedia Authorware for Mac operating systems. It is common to build custom CMS features into hypertext/hypermedia developments. For example, the Arizona State University accounting lab simulation package marketed by McGraw-Hill has core CMS attributes that were scripted into that package by the author even though ToolBook is not a full-featured CMS package. McGraw-Hill can sell the package without paying a royalty fee since ToolBook has no runtime usage fee. There are some CMS packages such as Quest, LessonBuilder, CourseBuilder, and Peak that have no runtime/royalty fees. But CMS options have drawbacks in spite of their utilities for educators. Except for Quest and Tencore, the other CMS packages do not have full-featured scripting options of such major hypermedia competitors as Multimedia ToolBook, Apple Media Kit, HyperWriter, Icon Author, etc. CMS options do not cross platforms to run on multiple platforms as well as hypermedia GainMomentum, ScriptX and Icon Author. Especially see the concept of a shell.  (See also Runtime, Hypertext and Hypermedia)

Coaxial cable= A cable consisting of a single metal wire surrounded by insulation, which is itself surrounded by a braided or foil outer conductor.

CODEC = hardware and software for compressing and decompressing larve volumes of data.  The term generally applies to large multimedia files.

CollabraShare = collaboration groupware from Netscape Corporation. Netscape Collabra provides enterprise group discussions based on Internet standards, letting the groups share and track information efficiently. Collabra makes it easy to share information and create a knowledge base that people can access at any time. You can eliminate unnecessary meetings and save valuable time by discussing important issues in a public or private discussion forum. Netscape Collabra extends open Internet standards to create a powerful collaboration tool for the corporation, and it seamlessly integrates with Netscape Collabra Server. See See also Groupware, Lotus Notes, and Collaboration.

Collaboration = a joint effort that network technology has facilitated with email, FTP, and more advanced means of sharing ideas, documents, and data. Writing has become more of a collaborative effort since the dawn of the WWW. The WWW takes authors beyond the telephone by enabling them to speak to one another (audio), see one another (videoconferencing), and visualize documents and data. Software alternatives for collaborative authoring are reviewed at .  See also CMC, CollabraShare, IRC, Videoconferencing, Groupware, and Virtual.

Collar = a derivative instruments investing term where an investor puts a "collar" around investment risk, usually by selling a put option (an option to purchase) and purchasing a call option (an option to sell) around an investment.  Amgen and Oracle sold put warrants on their own common stock and then used the proceeds to purchase calls on the same stock.  This process is called a "costless collar" and is used to express a bullish view of the stock by management.

Compact disc= (See CD)

Companding= (See dbx)

Compression= Has several meanings. In one context, it refers to algorithms for shrinking the storage space required for files stored on discs. In those instances, nothing is usually sacrificed in the compression, although files may have to be decompressed before they can be utilized later on. In another context, compression refers to the storage of graphics or video files in such a way that they can be stored and/or processed more efficiently on computers. In the latter case, something (e.g., color depth, resolution, image sharpness, etc.) is usually lost in the process. (See also GIF, JPEG, Indeo, and MPEG)

Computer= An electronic system that can store and process information under program control.

Computer Based Training = (See CBT )

CompuServe= A commercial network that has some of the "richest offerings available, but it has been the slowest to change and can be much costlier than the other two services, especially if you make heavy use of some of its best features" according to Mossberg (1994a). It has a wide choice of bulletin boards, U.S. News and World Reports magazine, and Navigator to the Internet. News services are relatively cheap, but modem line costs are somewhat expensive. (See also Networks, Internet, SLIP, America Online, eWorld, Interchange, and Prodigy)

Computer Virus = (See Virus)

Concurrency Control= Concurrency control deals with the issues involved with allowing multiple people simultaneous access to shared entities, be they objects, data records, or some other representation. It is very important to have a recovery system such that if bad data is entered in a shared environment the databases can be recovered.  It is important understand transactions, which are collections of actions that potentially modify records.  More than one record may be involved, especially in double entry bookkeeping.  An example of a transaction is a transfer of funds between two bank accounts.  Concurrency controls are related to transactions controls, but they are not the same since transactions controls apply to single-person as well as multiple-person access.  Transactions controls are intended to assure that updated transactions are allowable and orderly.  Transactions in relational databases are often commands in a two phase commit system.  A "two phase commit" transactions control is the process by which a relational database ensures that distributed transactions are performed in an orderly manner. In this system, transactions may be terminated by either committing them or rolling them back.  Also see Database.

Configuration= This is a general-purpose computer term that can refer to the way you have your computer set up. It is also used to describe the total combination of hardware components that make up a computer system and the software settings that allow various hardware components of a computer system to communicate with one another.

Configure= The act of changing software or hardware actions by changing the settings.

Console= The file server.

Control code= Special nonprinting codes that cause electronic equipment to perform specific actions.

Conventional memory= (See RAM)

Cookies= Applets that enable a web site to collect information about each user for later reference (as in finding cookies in the cookie jar). Web Browsers like Netscape Navigator set aside a small amount of space on the user's hard drive to record detected preferences.  Cookies perform storage on the client side that might otherwise have to be stored in a generic-state or database server on the server side. Cookies can be used to collect information for consumer profile databases. Browsers can be set to refuse cookies. 

"Erasing Cookies From a PC," by Annelena Lobb, The Wall Street Journal, July 26, 2005; Page D1 ---,,SB112233873147495654,00.html?mod=todays_us_personal_journal

Erasing Cookies From a PC

The Problem: Your PC is filling up with cookies, which let Web sites track your Internet-browsing habits.

The Solution: Cookies are short text files that attach to your PC when you visit Web sites. Some disappear from your computer when you exit Internet Explorer, while others remain. You'll likely want to keep some cookies on your PC -- you can't visit sites like Yahoo and Gmail without them. In other cases, they let you avoid retyping your ZIP Code or address every time you visit.

Here's how to avoid unwanted cookies: When using Internet Explorer, go to the "Tools" menu and click on "Internet Options." Select the "Privacy" tab, and click on "Advanced Settings." Check the box that lets you override automatic cookie handling. Then you can ask to be prompted whenever cookies appear -- you'll get a pop up asking whether you want to accept it. If you later wish to change your settings, click the "Edit" button under the "Privacy" tab. You can delete it from the list of managed sites.

Powerful Cookies 1.0.7

For those people who are concerned about erasing evidence of their Internet activity stored in their browser, Powerful Cookies 1.0.7 may be worth taking a look at. Visitors can use this program to delete cookies, clean index.dat files, clean the cache, remove temporary files, and erase typed URLs. This application is compatible with Windows 95 or newer.

Bob Jensen's technology bookmarks are at

Many times when you browse a website, your browser checks to see if you have any pre-defined preferences (cookie) for that server if you do it sends the cookie to the server along with the request for a web page. Sometimes cookies are used to collect items of an order as the user places things in a shopping cart and has not yet submitted the full order. A cookie allows WWW customers to fill their orders (shopping carts) and then be billed based upon the cookie payment information. Cookies retain information about a users browsing patterns at a web site. This creates all sorts of privacy risks since information obtained from cookies by vendors or any persons who put cookies on your computer might be disclosed in ways that are harmful to you.  Browsers will let you refuse cookies with a set up that warns you when someone is about to deliver a cookie, but this really disrupts Web surfing and may block you from gaining access to may sites.  It is probably better to accept cookies for a current session and then dispose of unwanted cookies as soon as possible so that cookie senders do not obtain repeated access to your private information.  Microsoft Corporation has added the following utilities to the Internet Explorer (IE) browser according to 

The Internet Explorer 5.5 changes include the following:

• Notifications that Microsoft said will help users differentiate between first- and third-party cookies, plus automatic prompts that inform users anytime a third-party cookie is being offered by a Web site.

• A "delete all cookies" control button that has been added to the browser's main "Internet options" page to make it easier for users to get rid of cookies.

• New topics that have been added to Internet Explorer's help menu to better answer questions about cookies and their management.

Instruction for cookies control using Internet Explorer --- 

To accept cookies if you are using a PC running Windows...

Internet Explorer 5 1. Click Tools, and then click Internet Options.

2. Click the Security tab.

3. Click the Internet zone.

4. Select a security level other than High.


Click Custom Level, scroll to the Cookies section, and then click Enable for both cookie options.

5. Click on Apply.

6. Click on OK.

Other nations, notably in Europe, have placed more severe restrictions on the use of cookies.  See 

An Innovative Cookie Jar

The big question is whether Microsoft will adapt to StealthSurfer or introduce a competitive product for Internet Explorer.  My guess is no!  We may have to install Netscape once again just to keep pesky cookies off the main hard drive.

"Furtive Surfers Find a Way to Keep Their Travels Secret," by Howard Millman, The New York Times, March 4, 2004 --- 

A new thumb-size U.S.B. drive from a company called StealthSurfer aims to guard your privacy by keeping the records of your Web activity close to the vest. When you plug in the StealthSurfer and use its customized version of the Netscape browser, the device stores the cookies, U.R.L. history, cache files and other traces of your Web browsing that would ordinarily accumulate on your computer's hard drive. When you're done surfing, you unplug the drive and take the records of your travels with you.

StealthSurfer's name is a bit of an overstatement. It does keep your Web-hopping and file-sharing activities away from prying eyes after the fact. But since it uses your computer's Internet connection, the Web sites you visit can still track your Internet protocol address as you move around online.

The StealthSurfer comes in four capacities, ranging from 64 megabytes ($70) to 512 megabytes ($299). You may experience a slight reduction in performance when you use the device because its flash memory writes data at slower speeds than a full-size hard drive does.

On the other hand, installation is a breeze - computers running Windows Me, 2000 and XP recognize the StealthSurfer as a drive when it is plugged in. (If you're running Windows 98, you must download a driver

The StealthSurfer home page is at 
Don't you hate it now that some businesses now use biz instead of com in their URLs?


Question 1:
How can you send email anonymously?

Answer 1:
Simply set up an email account under a fictitious name.  For example, you can send email under multiple fictitious names from the Yahoo email server at   (Click on 'Mail" in the row "Connect")

Question 2:
How can you be totally anonymous on the Web such that cookie monsters do not track your Web navigation at your site and bad guys cannot track your surfing habits or get at your personal information such as medical records, name, mail address, phone number, email address, etc.?  (You can read about cookie monsters at 

Answer 2:
There is probably no way to be 100% safe unless you use someone else's computer without them knowing you are using that computer on the Web.  In most instances, the owner of the computer (a university, a public library, an employer, etc.) will know who is using the computer, but cookie monsters and bad guys on the Web won't have an easy time finding out who you are without having the powers of the police.

About the safest way to remain anonymous as a Web surfer is to sign up for Privada from your IP Internet provider that obtain your line connection from for purposes of connecting to the Web.  In most instances, surfers pay a monthly fee that will increase by about $5.00 per month for the Pivada service (if the IP provider has Privada or some similar service).  To read more about Privada, go to,2353,4514,00.html 

Privada Control (Application)

Primary Market Target: Utilities&Services 
Secondary Market Target: Financial Services

Description Used with Privada Network, PrivadaControl provides the consumer component of Privada's services, and is distributed to end-users by network service providers. Users create an online identity that cannot be linked to their real-world identity, allowing them to browse the Internet with the level of privacy they choose while still reaping the benefits of personalized content. PrivadaControl is built entirely in the Java(TM) programming language and runs completely in a Java Virtual Machine.

I added a Special Section to the document entitled "Opportunities of E-Business Assurance:  Risks in Assuring Risk" at 

For more information about fraud and security, go to 

(See also Finger, Security, and World Wide Web)

Copeland= The name given to Apple's troubled operating OS 8 System 8.0 for Mac and PowerPC computers. New features were to include OpenDoc object programming support, advanced security, TCP/IP support, and IPX support. Although it was expected to be released in 1996, Copeland was once again delayed for purposes of adding competitive features, especially networking utilities. In early 1997, Mac OS 8 (Copeland) development was purportedly in a state of chaos after losing some important engineers and the director of OS 8 development. The development was sidetracked when Apple purchased Steve Job's NEXTStep and announced that NEXTStep would become the core of future Mac and PowerMac operating systems. Apple's hopes are riding heavily upon the evolution of a new operating system called Rhapsody that is a revolutinary operating system based upon NEXTStep technology. (See also Mac, PowerPC, Operating system, NEXTStep, Mozart, Gershwi, and )

Coprocessor= Electronic component that relieves the microprocessor of some important tasks. Increased performance can often be achieved through the use of coprocessors. For example, a math coprocessor performs many of the math operations outside the microprocessor. A coprocessor may also speed graphics computations.

Copying= (See VCR, CD-R, Wide-screen TV, and SCMS)

CORBA= Common Object Request Broker Architecture is in competition with Microsoft's OLE/DCOM object-oriented Middleware technology for business applicaions. CORBA is most popular in communications Middleware using an Object Request Broker ORB. CORBA evolved out of TCP/IP. DCOM is bundled with the Windows 2000 operating system but has lackluster support for other operating systems. CORBA is more flexible with other operating systems. Both CORBA and OLE/DCOM are designed to distribute objects or assembly of appplications from discreet, self-contained components. Both are appealing in the fast growing technology of "object middleware." Object middleware has corporate appeal due to the ability to provide highly abstracted object-oriented programming interfaces. Microsoft added new terminology in this area. For example, COM depicts a Component Object Model to describe the base model used for building components. The term DCOM is the Distributed form of COM. ActiveX (formerly OCX) is the packaging technology for controls and supercedes prior Visual Basic Controls known as VBX. OLE no longer means object linking and embedding. OLE now refers to a collection of technologies. For interactive computing on the web, see Distributed Network Computing. A good textbook chapter on CORBA is given at Also see RPC and

An excellent article that compares XML and CORBA was written by Mark Elenko and Mike Reinertsen, "XML & CORBA," Application Development Trends, September 1999, pp. 45-50.  For some reason the article is not available online along with the other articles that are online at (Maybe it will be made available by the time you read this edition of New Bookmarks):

It is still important to sometimes distinguish CORBA from XML.  CORBA is an enabling technology for creating sophisticated, distributed object systems on heterogeneous platforms.  XML is a technology for conveying structured data in a portable way.  CORBA allows users to connect disparate systems and form object architectures.  XML will allow users to transmit structured information within, between and out of those systems, and to represent information in a universal way in and across architectures.  Both technologies are platform-, vendor- and language-independent.  The conceptual fit is perfect.  To see where and how this fit is best realized, we will examine how to actually combine CORBA and XML from a series of widening perspectives.

A May 3, 2001 email message:

Dr. Jensen,
I searched the article by Mark Elenko and Mike Reinertsen, "XML & CORBA," that you write in ... but I found slides at URL:  
Filippo Spadaro

ActiveX merges Microsoft's concept of Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) with interactive programming for the Internet. Its main main purposes for the Internet are to include live multimedia effects such as real (streaming) audio and to make it easy to bring web documents to life with virtual reality, including 360 degree video. ActiveX does not require HTML. ActiveX can perform many of the tasks that are also performed with Macromedia's Shockwave, but the ActiveX can create interactivity with much smaller file sizes and bandwidth requirements. As an illustration, visit Macromedia's FutureWave web site at See also Distributed Network Computing.  See also ActiveX and Visual Basic.

Welcome to OTM
What exactly are
Object Transaction Monitors (OTMs)? In short, OTMs are a new category of middleware that should incorporate much of today's "best-of-breed" middleware technology features. Products in this category should support the object model without compromising the scalability, stability and performance characteristics offered by transaction processing (TP) monitors. OTMs should also
combine support for the synchronous communication model (found in most of the middleware categories, such as CORBA and COM) with support for the asynchronous communication model [found in message-oriented middleware products such as Microsoft Message Queue Server (MSMQ) and IBM's MQSeries].

There are a number of OTMs on the market today, although the exact number offered is not clear -- it depends on who is doing the talking and whether a product is generally available or in beta release. The veteran in the OTM market is Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS) from Microsoft Corp., Redmond, Wash., which began shipping in late 1996. M3 (formerly known as "Iceberg"), from Sunnyvale, Calif.-based BEA Systems Inc., was launched this June, with general availability of its first release scheduled for late July. The status of IBM's OTM offering, Component Broker, is unclear. Depending on whom you talk to at IBM, the next version of Component Broker is either in the early beta or late beta phase.

Welcome to MTS
Microsoft Transaction Server is a distributed runtime environment for COM objects that began shipping approximately 18 months ago. It provides a sophisticated infrastructure for activating and running objects across the network. MTS provides automatic transaction management, database connection pooling, process isolation, automatic thread-pooling, automatic object instance management, resource sharing, role-based security, transaction monitoring within distributed applications and much more. These services are necessary for scaling server-side components and supporting a substantial number of concurrent client requests. MTS performs all of these services automatically, and without the need for application developers to write special code. A developer can therefore develop server-side components with a single client in mind.

CORE= The Chapter 3 "core" attributes that distinguish CMS software/systems from other CAL options. (See also CMS)

CPU= Central Processing Unit that encompasses a computer's RAM, processing, and control circuitry, including the arithmetic-logic (ALU) unit. Both the ALU and the control units are wholly contained on the microprocessing chip whereas the primary storage is on the mother board or the expansion bus. For test comparisons of Intel Pentium, PowerPC, and Mips R4X00, and DEC Alpha, see Montgomery (1994). Montgomery ranks Pentium and Mips highest in terms of file servers. He ranks Pentium higher on most graphics and business applications criteria except for price since PowerPC is a cheaper alternative. There are, of course, other considerations. The PowerPC currently performs better than Pentium in terms of temperature, speed, and price, but all these advantages are expected to disappear when Intel introduces its upgrade versions of the Pentium. The PowerPC, however, will not perform as well using DOS and Windows operating systems. (See also Alpha processor, Pentium, MIPS, PowerPC, CISC, RISC, Operating system, and Motherboard)

Cracker = (See Phreaker.)

Craplet =

What's a craplet? (See Walt Mossberg's advice on how to wipe them out.)

Video: Walt tries to get rid of craplets

Many people are furious about so-called craplets, the unwanted programs that come loaded on most new PCs. Until computer makers stop dumping these junk programs on us, here are some strategies for avoiding them.
"Getting Junk Programs On Your New Computer," by Walter S. Mossberg, The Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2007; Page B1 --- 

Last week, when I condemned the flood of crippled trial software, ads and offers that come loaded on new Windows Vista computers, readers reacted strongly. I received roughly 700 emails, all but a handful agreeing with me. The column was the most popular article that day on and was cited on numerous other Web sites.

Clearly, many people are furious about these unwanted programs and icons, which are sometimes called craplets. Many would like to smite them without going through the laborious process of uninstalling them manually, one at a time. Some readers suggested strategies. The following are some options.

One ray of hope is a free program called PC Decrapifier. It can be downloaded at This software automates the process of uninstalling craplets. It was written originally to clean up Dell computers, but its author says it will work on other brands, too. Before PC Decrapifier runs, it allows you to remove from its proposed deletion list any programs it considers junk, but which you might prefer to retain.


I haven't tested PC Decrapifier, but even assuming it works well there are a couple of downsides. First, it may not remove every craplet from every manufacturer. Also, unless you carefully tweak the deletions list, PC Decrapifier might remove some full working copies of preinstalled software that you want; it can't easily differentiate between trial and real versions of some commonly bundled programs.

Another option is to order a PC without the craplets in the first place. Some high-end Dell gaming machines are sold this way. Dell says you can also opt out of some third-party software on other models. Certain business models from various makers can be purchased clean, as well. But even business machines sometimes come with unwanted trial software, like limited versions of accounting programs, and may not be configured for consumers.

Dell, Sony and others say they are moving toward a new scenario in which all of this stuff will be easily refused on all models.

An alternate strategy is to avoid brand-name Windows computers and buy a Vista PC from a local shop that will construct it to your specs and leave off all the craplets. The catch is that you may pay more, and you must be certain that the shop will be around and willing to provide support for the life of the machine.

Some techies wrote me to say that the first thing they do with a new PC is to wipe out the hard disk and reinstall Windows so they start with a clean machine. But I can't recommend this for average users. For one thing, many new PCs no longer come with disks for reinstalling a full, clean version of Windows. Some have special sections of the hard disk from which you can perform a "recovery," but these recoveries may not be complete or may reload the craplets along with Windows. You could, of course, buy a fresh copy of Vista to reinstall, but that could cost hundreds of dollars.

Also, wiping out and rebuilding an operating system can be tricky for nontechies. Dell told me, "It is not advisable for nontechie consumers to wipe the hard drive and reinstall. ... This is intended as an emergency backup or for the technically sophisticated." Sony and Gateway sent me similar warnings.

Finally, an excellent way to avoid or minimize the craplet problem is to simply buy an Apple Macintosh computer. New Macs don't have any craplets displayed on their desktops. On a new Mac, no third-party software is automatically launched when you start the computer, and you don't need antivirus or antispyware programs because the Mac is essentially free from those menaces. So, even my year-old Mac laptop reboots roughly three times as fast as my three-week-old Sony.

Apple does include a few third-party programs on Macs, including one that, oddly, is for drawing comic-strip effects on photos. But these are tucked away in the applications folder and most are full working versions, not trials or offers. The main exception is a trial version of Microsoft Office. With some Mac models, you get trials of two Apple programs, iWork and FileMaker Pro. But these trials can be deleted simply by dragging the icons to the trash can.

Computer makers should stop dumping craplets on us. Until they do, you can find ways to avoid them.

Email me at . See video versions

Video: Walt tries to get rid of craplets


CRM = Customer Relationship Management system based upon information technology.  Central to CRM are databases customer relationships in sufficient detail so that management, salespeople, people providing service, and perhaps the customer directly could access information, match customer needs with product plans and offerings, remind customers of service requirements, know what other products a customer had purchased, and so forth.  See Database and SAP.

New Offering from PwC Division touts consistent CRM PwC ConsultingTM, a division of financial services organization PricewaterhouseCoopers, has released CRM ACCEL — a complete multi-channel CRM program designed to help companies reduce the cost of serving customers while increasing revenue. 

A CRM portals page is at 

Cross-platform= The ability of a software package or an electronic "book" to run in more than one operating system such as Icon Author and TIE crossings between Windows, Unix, and DOS operating systems. Rosenthal (1995) compares hypermedia authoring software having cross-platform capabilities. Some will only play back on cross-platforms but cannot be used to author in the platform of choice. Apple Media Kit and ScriptX authoring will run in DOS, Mac, Unix, and other operating systems, but neither option can be used for authoring in DOS or Windows. Insight into Multimedia and TIE can be used to playback in UNIX but authoring can only be undertaken in Windows. Hardware that crosses platforms in emulation (such as playing back Windows software in emulation on a Mac computer) frequently does not work well with complex authoring systems such as CBT ToolBook or Quest options that only perform well in Windows. Often very expensive options are priced for cross-platform capabilities that are limited in terms of authoring features present in software that will not cross platforms. GainMomentum authoring package from Sybase crosses platforms between UNIX, Windows, and Windows 2000. However, in spite of its very high price this package does not contain many of the wonderful authoring features found in Windows-only CBT ToolBook that is less than 10% of the cost of GainMomentum. Only a small proportion (less than 20%) of the hypermedia authoring options have cross-platform capabilities, but it is becoming a priority of many vendors to upgrade their products with cross-platform capabilities. Beware that some products like Apple Media Kit, Icon Author, TIE, Macromedia Authorware, Macromedia Director, Cast, Course Builder, Insight Into Multimedia, Oracle Media Objects, PowerMedia, Test, GainMomentum, and ScriptX may claim cross-platform capabilities, but it is not possible, for example, to translate complex hypermedia animations and high resolution graphics from a Mac to a Windows operating system and vice versa. See CGM for computer graphics metafiles that cross platforms between PC and Mac computers. Adobe Acrobat software is designed for cross-platform applications of many types of files, but it has limited or no ability to cross multimedia platforms. The term "cross-platform" can also apply to hardware options such a computers that will run under more than one operating system. However, this is not technically crossing a platform since it is merely equivalent to having two independent computers in one housing. Some, but not all, lessons authored in DOS and Windows may run on a Mac or PowerPC computer, but those that do may run painfully slow due to being run in emulation rather than direct form. Conversion software is available for converting Mac HyperCard Stacks into Multimedia ToolBook Windows books. Although this software works well for simple books (e.g., books having no complex animations and high-resolution graphics) that aren't in color, it doesn't work well for complex books with greater color depth, high resolution graphics, or complex animations. The same problem arises in most conversion software (e.g., that of Macromedia's Authorware and Director). Even ToolBooks created in 24 bit color PCs may not be suited for PC displays having lower color depths. Mac computers attempt to dither 24 bit color images into acceptable images for lower color-depth Mac computers, but PCs do not dither these images automatically. As books become more complex, a point is reached where authors must rewrite books for Mac and Windows operating systems. The Internet changed much of the worries about cross-platform capability. Increasingly, authoring software and other types of software are gearing up for playback on the World Wide Web (WWW) such as the Shockwave reader for Macromedia's Director and Authorware and the Neuron reader for the Asymetrix ToolBook products. (See also ActiveX Authoring, CORBA, Native, Operating system, PDA, and CGM)

Cryptolope= The combination of "cryptographic" security encription with "envelopes" of domain. Cryptolopes enable publishers on the WWW to securely distribute content with copyright protections and security over payments for copyrighted material usage.

CWIS= Campus Wide Information System bulletin board services that can be accessed on the Internet. These are available on most college campuses and provide bulletin board information on campus calendars, e-mail directories on the campus, employment opportunities, campus events, course catalogs, etc.

CyberMall= A term commonly used to describe an electronic site shared by a number of commercial interests.

Cyberspace= A term coined by William Gibson in his fantasy novel "Neuromancer" to refer to a near-future computer network where users mentally travel through matrices of data. The term is now used to describe the Internet and the other computer networks.

Return to Top of Document


Click on a term or phrase below:

DAB/DAR / DAC / Daemon / Darwin / DAT / Data Discman / Database / Database building from the WWW / Data Encryption Standard (DES) / Data Mining and Data Warehouse / DAV / DB 2 / dbx / DCC / DCOM / Debugging / DEC Alpha / Delta Project /Denial of Service Attacks / Desktop Search / Device driver / DHTML / Dial-up connection / Digital Video (DV) Camcorder / DIP Switch / Direct connection / DirectTV / Disabilities products / Disk-at-once recording / Distributed Network Computing / DLL /  DLP and LCD / DNC / DNS / Document Type Definition (DTD) / Docking station / Document / Document Object Model (DOM)  / Document window / DOM / Domino / Dolby-NR / DOS / Download / Draft-N / Driver / Dry camera / DSD / DSL / DSP / DSS / DSU / DTD / DTP / Dual Boot / Dual Core / DVD / DVD-RAM / DVD-ROM /DVI /

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view  (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

DAB/DAR= Digital Audio Broadcast and Digital Audio Radio broadcasting in digital formats via satellites and fiber optic cable. (See also Networks and DCC)

DAC= Digital Analog Conversion hardware that converts digital signals into analog form. (See also ADC, Scan converter, Modem, and Video)

Daemon = Disk And Execution MONitor programs that are not initially executed but lie in wait for certain contingencies to occur. Daemons are extremely common in UNIX operating systems.The slightly revised form Demon refers to the program itself whereas Daemon refers to an operating system process. See also HTTPd.

Darwin = (See Operating System.)

DAT= Digital Audio Tape used for recording computer disc files onto a cheap backup and storage medium. DAT tapes are contained in small cartridges that are the cheapest means of storing vast amounts of data. For example, a cartridge smaller than the palm of an adult hand can hold two or more gigabyes of data. Popular manufacturers of DAT backup tape drives include Sony and Hewlett-Packard.

Data Discman= (See Games)

Database= A computer file or system of data organized in records and fields for fast retrieval and ease of updating.  For an overview of network database trends see Also see CFMLConcurrency Control, DTP, GainMomentum, Grid Computing, JDBC, MDA, Middleware, Relational database management, SAP, Resource Description Framework, and 4GL Database Languages.

Key database system and enterprise resource planning (ERP) system web sites for large-scale systems are listed below:

Some of the above systems are stronger on personnel  management utilities and weaker on database technologies.  Others are stronger on database technologies and weaker on personnel management.  In all cases, installation of a system is no piece of cake.   In some cases it can take years and millions of dollars to get a system in place.   But in those instances these larger systems are the only feasible alternatives.

Smaller-scale database systems are reviewed by D.C. Hayes and J.E. Hunton in the Journal of Accountancy, January 1999, pp. 61-69.  These are useful for small business and small departments within large businesses.  Sometimes it is easier to build a small database system than to fool with a large system to handle smaller jobs.   Smaller-scale database software packages include the following:

Microsoft is promising a greatly improved MS Access that will probably take over the smaller-scale database market like Excel took over the spreadsheet market.  One advantage of MS Access is the way it integrates with other MS Office programs such as Excel.

Networked databases are exploding in popularity across the Internet.  For a review, see .  Microsoft is promoting ActiveX Data Objects (ADO).  The following is a quotation from :

The ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO) programming model represents the best of the existing Microsoft data access programming models. If you are familiar with Data Access Objects (DAO) or Remote Data Objects (RDO), you will recognize the interfaces and will be able to work with them very quickly. You will also notice considerable improvements in the model, and tasks that were awkward in previous models have either been fixed or eliminated from the ADO model.

The ADO objects provide you with the fastest, easiest and most productive means for accessing all kinds of data sources. The ADO model strives to expose everything that the underlying data provider can do, while still adding value by giving you shortcuts for common operations.

ADO is Microsoft's strategic, high-level interface to all kinds of data. ADO provides consistent, high-performance access to data, whether you're creating a front-end database client or middle-tier business object using an application, tool, language, or even an Internet browser. ADO is the single data interface you need to know for 1- to n-tier client/server and Web-based data-driven solution development.

ADO is designed as an easy-to-use application level interface to Microsoft's newest and most powerful data access paradigm, OLE DB. OLE DB provides high-performance access to any data source, including relational and non-relational databases, email and file systems, text and graphics, custom business objects, and more. ADO is implemented with a small footprint, minimal network traffic in key Internet scenarios, and a minimal number of layers between the front-end and data source-all to provide a lightweight, high-performance interface. ADO is easy to use because it is called using a familiar metaphor - the OLE Automation interface, available from just about any tool and language on the market today. And since ADO was designed to combine the best features of, and eventually replace RDO and DAO, it uses similar conventions with simplified semantics to make it easy to learn for today's developers.

Related to ADO the Microsoft® Remote Data Service (RDS) for distributing data on the Internet.  You can read the following at :

RDS Overview

Multiple sources...One control...Rich user experience...RDS is just that simple! The Microsoft® Remote Data Service (RDS) is your source for distributed data access through the Web. RDS makes full-featured, data-centric Web applications a reality by combining data manipulation of retrieved data, efficient client-side caching, and support for data-aware ActiveX® controls with an elegant and powerful programming model.

RDS is Bringing Data Access to the Web!

RDS goes beyond the current generation of Web data access tools by allowing clients to update the data they see. Using drop-in ActiveX data controls, such as grids, lists, and combo boxes, developers can deploy sophisticated user interfaces that allow end users to view and change data with a minimum of programming. End users are no longer restricted to staring at a static HTML results table. With RDS, they may now alter, add, and delete data they have queried and retrieved. In addition, all changes are buffered locally, and can be submitted to the server for inspection, processing and storage in the database.

The benefits of traditional client/server technology have migrated to the Web, and the read-only, static client is a thing of the past. By providing a local data cache, the end user is now able to navigate through large data sets without costly server round trips.

RDS provides the ability to invoke remote objects over HTTP and DCOM, enabling programmers to develop distributed Web applications that effectively partition application logic between Visual Basic® Scripting Edition code on the client and server objects. Automation objects written in Visual Basic can expose services to client-side applications, while protecting business logic and data from distribution. Developers are no longer restricted to choosing between "thin" or "fat" clients and servers. They can make an informed choice and partition their data and business logic accordingly.

Object-oriented database systems are quite different from the extremely relational database systems (e.g., MS Access, FoxPro, DBase, etc) that are extremely popular today.  I will begin this module with a quote from my favorite online textbook in accounting information systems (that I adopt each year for my ACCT 5342 course):

Emerging database systems concepts 
We conclude this chapter with a brief discussion of an emerging concepts relating to database systems. Object-oriented (OO) approaches to modeling and implementing database systems are becoming increasingly popular. This approach employs object-oriented modeling (OOM) techniques to model the domain of interest and then implements the resulting model using an object-oriented database management system (OODBMS). The object-oriented approach focuses on the objects of interest in the domain. Customers, vendors, employees, sales orders, and receipts are all viewed as objects that have certain attributes. OOM involves identifying the objects of interest, their attributes, and relationships between objects.

A critical feature unique to the OO approach is that an "object" package includes both the attributes of the object and the methods or procedures that pertain to that object. The methods might dictate how the object's attributes are modified in response to different events, or how the object causes changes in the attributes of other objects. Thus, a key difference between the database models described earlier and the OO approach is that OO models combine data (attributes) and procedures (methods) in one package, i.e., the "object." This feature of OO models is referred to as encapsulation - attributes and methods are represented together in one capsule. Another powerful feature of OO models is inheritance. OO models depict the real world as a hierarchy of object classes, with lower level classes inheriting attributes and methods from higher level classes. Thus, lower level object classes do not need to redefine attributes and methods that are common to the higher level object classes in the class hierarchy.

An OO model contains all details needed for implementation and object-oriented DBMS are powerful enough to represent all the information contained in the model. However, most organizations that have made heavy investments in RDBMS see little need to migrate to OO environments. While OO modeling methods are available, there is no consensus regarding the "best" method to use. Finally, although OODBMS are beginning to become commercially available, they have not gained much acceptance in the marketplace probably due to their relatively high cost and poor performance in comparison to RDBMS. Gemstone, ObjectStore, VBase, and O2 are some examples of OODBMS.

Accounting Information Systems: A Database Approach
by Uday S. Murthy and S. Michael Groomer
For more information go to 

Next I will repeat a great illustration pointed out in the message below from Alexander Lashenko:

Hello Bob, 

Take a look at 

It's an original object-oriented DBMS with web interface. Looks very nice.


Alexander Lashenko

See also Knowledge Managment and Search Engine.

For non-hierarchical online database design see OLAP.

See also Data Mining


See Windows File System (WFS) 

Database building from the WWW = (See Web surfing backwards and OLAP)

Data Mining and Data Warehouse

Data Warehouse
A database, frequently very large, that can access all of a company's information. While the warehouse can be distributed over several computers and may contain several databases and information from numerous sources in a variety of formats, it should be accessible through a server. Thus, access to the warehouse is transparent to the user, who can use simple commands to retrieve and analyze all the information. The data warehouse also contains data about how the warehouse is organized, where the information can be found, and any connections between data. Frequently used for decision support within an organization, the data warehouse also allows the organization to organize its data, coordinate updates, and see relationships between information gathered from different parts of the organization. 

Data mining is the discovery and modeling of hidden patterns in large amounts of data. It is usually case-based, in that the parameters can be statistically modeled. Technically, data mining is statistical analysis, but on a complex scale. IBM invented data mining and holds some of the patents. One of the goals of data mining is to allow the user to discover patterns and build models automatically, without knowing exactly what she's looking for.

The models are both descriptive and prospective. They address why things happened and what is likely to happen next. A user can pose "what-if" questions to a data-mining model that can not be queried directly from the database or warehouse. Examples include: "What is the expected lifetime value of every customer account," "Which customers are likely to open a second account," or "Will this customer cancel our service if we introduce higher fees?" (Questions like this assume a Natural Language front end.)

Text mining is a subset of data mining which applies the same rules and logic, but is directed at gleaning information from large bodies of text rather than numerical data. The information technologies associated with making data mining a functional process are neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and rule induction. Data mining is becoming more prevalent as businesses, governments and organizations look for ways to leverage the existing mountains of information they already have.
"Machines in the Myths: The State of Artificial Intelligence," by DeAnne DeWitt, ChipCenter --- 

DATATEL = see database.

DAV= Digital Audio Video connectors such as those found on the Apple AV that allow the flow of digitized video to bypass the computer's main bus. (See also Bus)

DB 2 = see database.

dbx= The "companding" compression and expansion of audio signals to reduce noise distortions of stereo television broadcasts. (See also MTS/SAP)

DCC= Digital Compact Cassette format that improves sound quality relative to traditional analog formats of audio cassettes. Analog cassettes can be played on DCC tape decks such that the purchase of a DCC tape deck does not preclude listening to analog tapes.


Debugging= Executing a program, one statement at a time, to identify and fix errors.

DEC Alpha= (See Alpha processor)

Delta Project= A European Economic Community (EEC) funded project of the Commission of European Communities. With a budget of over $100 million, this is probably the world's largest attempt to apply modern technologies to distance training and education. Partners in the project include major universities, telecommunications companies, and business firms of all sizes across the EEC. Collis and de Vries (1994) report on 27 major projects with over 300 sub-projects in network education and multimedia development.

Data Encryption Standard (DAS)=
The Data Encryption Standard, or DES, was the first official U.S. government cipher intended for commercial use. DES is the most widely used cryptosystem in the world.

Also see security.

Denial of Service Attacks ---

Desktop Search= Search utilities that search for words, phrases, characters, pictures, and even multimedia files on your personal computer.  Popular alternatives are from Google (GDS) , Yahoo, and Microsoft --- 
See also OCR.

Device driver= Software that controls the communications between a computer program and various hardware devices such as the sound card, the video card, the CD-ROM player, the MIDI, disk drives, etc.


Dial-up connection= The most popular form of Net connection for the home user, this is a connection from your computer to a host computer over standard telephone lines.

Digital Video (DV) Camcorder= (See Video camera and Video from digital (DV) camcorders)

DIP Switch= Dual In-line Package case on a computer board that contains small switches for configuring hardware components. A given board can be configured in a way that is compatible with the entire system of other peripheral hardware. (See also Board)

Direct connection= A permanent connection between your computer system and the Internet. This is sometimes referred to as a leased-line connection because the line is leased from the telephone company.

DirectTV= (See DSS)

Disabilities products= A variety of hardware and software options for users having certain types of disabilities. The Trace R&D Center (608-263-2309) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison produces both a Trace Resource Book and a CD-ROM that describes computer products for persons with disabilities. An evaluation service is available from the National Information System (800-922-9234, Ext. 301), Center for Developmental Disabilities, Benson Building, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Mike Paciello has a good paper with links at .   I also recommend that you use the search term "disabilities" at  (See also Speech recognition and Text reading)

Disk-at-once recording= Single-session recording mode, where all the data to be included on a disk is written in one pass. You must write in this mode to have your CD mass-produced by a stamping house. (See also CD-R)

Distributed Network Computing= Distributed Network Computing where a network computer can perform computing functions in another computer on the same network. In the early days of the Internet, Telnet could be used for remote computing. In modern times, the trend is toward database access and computing among networked computers.

Development tools for data enabled frameworks are starting to emerge. New standards are also starting to emerge like CORBA's IIOP, Sun's RMI, amd Microsoft's DCOM. RMI is part of the Java programming language library which enables a Java program running on one computer to access the objects and methods of another Java program running on a different computer. Some vendors are also having their own proprietary extensions as well. IIOP is built upon CORBA technology. DCOM is Microsoft Corporation's standard for distrubuted network computing.  See  Database, ADO, and RDS .

A good reference for more extensive distributed network computing terminology is World Wide Web and Object Technology by Ashish B. Shahhttp at

Bob Jensen's summary document entitled "Networked Databases:  Past, Present, and Future," can be found at .

DLL = Dynamic Link Library bundle of coded subroutines that can be shared with different programs on the system.

DNS= An acronym for Domain Name Server, DNS refers to a database of Internet names and addresses which translates the names to the official Internet Protocol numbers and vice versa.

Docking station= A platform that can be attached to portable computers giving them a variety of added options such as stereo speakers, a CD-ROM player, an SCSI port, and bays for additional components such as data tape drives and floppy disc drives. The numbers and types of options vary among vendors. Some docking stations are small and portable. Others are large and relatively heavy, especially those docking stations that provide notebook computers with added expansion slots for boards such as video capture boards. Some docking stations are reviewed in PC Computing, January 1995, p. 128. (See also Notebook computer)

Document= When used in reference to the World Wide Web, a document is any file containing text, media or hyperlinks that can be transferred from an HTTP server to a client program.

Document Object Model (DOM) = (See HTML)

Document type definition = (See DTD.)

Document window= This is the Web browser's scrollable window in which HTML documents can be viewed.

Dolby-NR= Dolby-Noise Reduction system invented by Ray Dolby. There are various levels of quality, which in rank order from lowest to highest quality include Dolby B (good), Dolby C (better), Dolby S (best), and Dolby SR (professional). DSB Dolby surround digital systems are even higher quality systems used in movie soundtracks and videodiscs. HDTV will also include DSD. A sound enforcement system first used in the movie THX 1138 by George Lucas is now known as the THX system. The THX-licensed speakers use a professional Dolby process for commercial and home theater systems. (See also HX-Pro)

DOM = (See HTML)

Domino = (see Lotus Notes).

DOS= MS DOS Microsoft Disk Operating System introduced by Microsoft Corporation in 1981. It became the operating system standard for PCs around the world and still serves as the foundation of the popular Microsoft Windows extended operating system. The ability to operate from DOS on low-capacity PCs having only 640K of random access memory (RAM) has become the limitation in modern times for DOS to remain a standard for higher speed and higher RAM computers. DOS has not been upgraded for newer 32-bit processors and will eventually fade as the newer 32-bit, 64-bit, and higher capacity PCs spread across world markets. (See also Operating system, Windows, Windows Chicago, Windows 2000, and OS/2)

Download= To transfer to your computer a copy of a file that resides on another computer. For details see Modem.

Driver= A memory resident program usually used to control a hardware device.

Dry camera= A digital camera that records images directly to a disk or other medium that can be read directly into computers without having to develop imaging film with "wet" developer chemicals. Various vendors have relatively inexpensive dry cameras whereas these same vendors like Nikon, Kodak, Logitech, and Dycam have superior and very expensive models that have much higher imaging quality. Apple, Stormware, and other vendors have only the lower priced modes. Photographs can be scanned readers that plug into the back PCs, although the later versions will also plug directly into a PCMCIA slot for downloading into a computer. An example of the latter option is Nikon's Coolpix model. (See also Video camera and Video from digital (DV) camcorders)

DSD= (See Dolby-NR)

DSL= Digital Subscriber Line technology for transmitting data up to 50 times faster than present analog modem and ISDN alternatives. Telephone companies are hoping that DSL service will keep telephone lines competitive with cable modems and other competitive alternatives to present telephone transmission services. Telephone companies are considering two dominant DSL technologies: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL, ASL) and High Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL). ADSL technology will deliver higher downstream speeds (6 Mbps) than upstream speeds (640 kbps). 

By the way, ADSL or ASL differs from DSL in that there is an asymmetry in transmission speeds into (download) and out of (upload) your computer.  In ASL, the upload speeds are much slower than the download speeds.  However, ASL connections are being pushed heavily into the huge home market, whereas DLS is being touted for the business firm market.

DSL Information

December 24, 2008 message from ashley smith []

Hi Professor Jensen,

I'm a Trinity alum and I was looking over the school's site when I came across when I came across your FAQs about the WWW page. Great Idea. I know I could use a lot more knowledge when it comes to the Internet and computers. I noticed you had a section on ISPs. I use Qwest for my Internet Service and they have some useful info about DSL on their site: . Just thought since it helped me out it could potentially dumb things down for some of your other users. I'm no computer wiz, but it helped me a ton! Happy Holidays,

Ashley Smith

Bob Jensen's technology bookmarks are at

For additional information, see See also MMDS and Modem.

Below is something that might make a good entry into your Technology Glossary. (Text below from What Ever since I got a DSL line I have been unable to log onto Temple University's primary mail server. I receive an abrupt and annoying message "The TCP/IP connection was unexpectedly terminated by the server." It happens that Temple has security procedure in place for this server that traces my IP address back to my ISP to verify my name when I try to log on to get my mail. However, my ISP uses a newer system called "Reverse Address Resolution Protocol" (RARP), which does not keep a list of names on a name server for immediate verification. (Maintaining an up-to-date list of client names on a name server apparently is an expensive, labor-intensive process.) I doubt if my ISP is the only one using this technology. This is an interesting clash of old fashioned security procedures and newer technology. 
Steve Fogg

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a protocol by which a physical machine in a local area network can request to learn its IP address from a gateway server's Address Resolution Protocol (Address Resolution Protocol) table or cache. A network administrator creates a table in a local area network's gateway router that maps the physical machine (or Media Access Control - MAC address) addresses to corresponding Internet Protocol addresses. When a new machine is set up, its RARP client program requests from the RARP server on the router to be sent its IP address. Assuming that an entry has been set up in the router table, the RARP server will return the IP address to the machine which can store it for future use. RARP is available for Ethernet, Fiber Distributed-Data Interface, and token ring LANs.

Stephen L. Fogg, Ph.D., CPA, 
Chair Department of Accounting Fox School of Business and Management
 Temple University Philadelphia, PA 19122 Phone: 215-204-1915 Fax: 215-204-5587 URL

DSP= Digital Signal Processing chips that are common in cards (boards) added to expansion slots in computers, especially for adding multimedia to computers. In the future, DSPs and video hardware will probably be more common on motherboards instead of add-on boards. All major sound systems for PCs in the future will probably be upgraded to DSP-based audio chips, many of them right on the motherboard. (See also Sound board and Multimedia Video Processor)

DSS= Digital Satellite Systems such as those introduced by Hughes Communications and USSB United States Satellite Broadcasting, Inc. The term for commercial satellite dishes used for this system is DirectTV which will compete actively with full-service cable TV. Since 120 channel capacity is expected on small 18-inch home satellite dishes, it becomes much more feasible to bring remote education into homes, schools, and offices. For a review of DSS, see Barcroft (1993). (See also Teleconference)

DSU= The abbreviation for Digital Services Unit, DSU replaces the modem in synchronous connections to the Internet.

DTD = Document Type Definition A document type definition (DTD) that follows the rules of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). A DTD is a specification that accompanies a document and identifies what the funny little codes (or markup) are that separate paragraphs, identify topic headings, and so forth and how each is to be processed.  For example, the most common DTD in web documents is HTML.   DTD is vital to extracting SGML and XML from web documents and databases that are not marked up with SGML or XML.  See wrapper.

DTP = can stand for DeskTop Publishing or Distributed Transaction Processing. Anthony Frey on Network Computing Online, October 24, 1997 compares four middleware DTP monitors and states the following at

If someone told you Microsoft Windows 2000 is a better application server than Novell NetWare or Unix, what kind of applications would they be talking about? Microsoft Exchange or Lotus Notes? No. Oracle? Not likely. A Web server? Definitely not. In most cases these folks are refering to distributed transaction processing (DTP) monitors. When networking vendors claim "one billion transactions per day" or quote Transaction Processing Council TPC-C benchmark results, they're talking about DTP.

These often-overlooked middleware packages provide the essential communications and other services that enable business logic to be hosted on distributed servers in the middle tier. This business logic is made up of real applications--applications that are vital to most enterprise line-of-business operations. DTP monitors ensure complete transactional integrity for transactions between distributed relational database management systems (RDBMSes). Perhaps more than any other type of middleware, DTP monitors have enabled true three-tier client/server computing.

See also Database and Middleware.

Dual Boot=

"Before Going to Buy High-Tech Devices, Learn the New Terms," by Walter S. Mossberg, The Wall Street Journal,  November 16, 2006; Page B1 ---

Dual Boot: A computer that is configured to boot, or to start up, in two different operating systems, depending on which the user chooses at any one time. The most important example of this currently is on Apple's Macintosh computers, which now can be set up to run either the Mac operating system or Microsoft Windows using Apple's free dual-boot software, called Boot Camp.

Dual Core=

Dual Core: A type of microprocessor -- the brain that runs a computer -- which packs the equivalent of two processors into a single chip. The best known dual-core processors in consumer computers are Intel's Core 2 Duo and Core Duo, but rival AMD also makes them. They are a good bet for most people.




DVI= Digital Video Interactive video compression hardware and standard developed by the Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) before MPEG video boards hit the market. DVI is a form of compressed full-motion video for computer file storage. Full-motion video at over 30 frames per second takes up so much digitized storage that video must be compressed to make it more useful in hypermedia. DVI was an early compression option that required special and somewhat expensive DVI hardware installation inside the computer of both authors and users (readers) of hypermedia materials. New technology allows for video compression without such expensive hardware. MPEG hardware for video coded compression and decompression seems to be taking over the recent market share lead over DVI largely due to quality of the MPEG and options emerging after DVI. At present, it is not clear whether MPEG or DVI/Indeo will emerge as the international standard with greatest market acceptance. Many analysts are betting on MPEG at the moment. (See also Video for Windows, QuickTime, Compression, Video, Indeo, MCI, Ultimedia Video, and MPEG)

Return to Top of Document


Click on a term or phrase below:

E-Business / ECCH / Echo / E-Commerce   / EDI / EDGAR / Education grants / EDUCOM / EduQuest / EISA / Electronic classroom / Electronic Jamming / E-mail / Emoticon / Emulation / encryption / eNetwork Software /Enterprise / EPG / ERP / ERIC / ESH / Ethernet / Evaluation / Event handler / eWorld / Execution flow / Expanded memory / Expansion board/slot / Expert systems / Explorer / Express Author / Extended memory / eXstensible Style Language (XSL) / External Viewer / Extractor / Extranet

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view   (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

E-Business = a term that is easily confused with E-Commerce.  E-Business may be an umbrella term that refers to any type of business transaction on the Internet.  Some writers, however, may use the term in a more restricted context such as a business-to-business (B2B) transaction as opposed to a business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction.  For example, a B2B transaction might be a business firm's online banking transaction.  E-Commerce refers more to the B2C context where a firm sells goods on the internet and makes collections via some payment scheme such as online credit card transactions.  See

An Internet/Web portal with 14 channels on marketing and e-Commerce --- 

  • Internet Technology
  • Ecommerce/Marketing
  • Web Developer
  • Windows Internet Tech.
  • Linux/Open Source
  • Internet Resources
  • ISP Resources
  • Internet Lists
  • Download
  • International
  • International News
  • International Investing
  • ASP Resources
  • Wireless

Other examples of portals and vortals can be found at 

ECCH= European Case Clearing House, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Beds, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom (also at Babson College in Babson Park, Wellesley, MA 02157). The ECCH now offers an on line network server for international cases. Although none of the cases are, as yet, in hypertext or hypermedia format, it is a useful feature to have cases available for file transfer on the Internet. (See also HBSP)

E-Business = (See E-Business).

Echo= return response between a host server and a terminal computer.  It is generally coded to be "on" or "off."  If echo is "on" (full duplex), the host will send back every character the user types in. If echo is "off" (half duplex), the host will not send back the characters, and the user's local computer or terminal writes each character to the screen directly. This can be confusing to new users if the state of the echo parameter is different on the host computer and the user's computer.   

EDI= The abbreviation for Electronic Data Interchange or Electronic Data Invoicing. The EDI system allows linked computers to conduct business transactions such as ordering and invoicing over telecommunications networks. The technology dates back to the 1970s when the first attempts at setting uniform standards commenced. However, EDI in telecommunications never lived up to its expectations largely due to high fees of Value Added Network (VAN) providers that, prior to the Internet usage, charged both monthly and transaction fees. In the late 1990s, EDI became less costly (as low as 10% of former VAN costs) when business applications exploded on the Internet and in intranets. The ultimate goal of EDI is to have standardized computer forms for business transactions and networking of nearly all aspects business transactions. This would greatly simplify use of networks to conduct business, accounting for transactions, and auditing. See "Intranets and Iternet: New Life for EDI," in Information Week, March 17, 1997, pp 65-67. Gradually EDI is being taken over by extranet networks on the Internet. See Extranet.

EDGAR = Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval database of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). EDGAR contains the digitized versions of many corporate filings, including 10Q quarterly and 10K annual financial reports of registered corporations and mutual funds.  

The EDGAR database is one probably the most widely used database by investors and financial analysts.  The drawback is that many of the filings are very long, sometimes exceeding 300 pages.  Searching is usually tedious and requires considerable financial searching and accounting skills.  Until filings are marked up in XBRL, the searching EDGAR will be tedious.

Currently, there are some corporate Web sites to aid in searching for EDGAR data.  One of the best known is EDGAR Online at  EDGAR Online uses enhanced parsing technologies to quickly extract the popular data most often sought after by investors.  Added services include email alerts, multiple file formates, and spreadsheet downloads.  One of EDGAR Online's most popular services is a sales lead geration product called Wealth ID.  This provides personal wealth information about individuals who file SEC Form 144 regarding sales of restricted stock.  

Another help site is called EDGAR Advantage at .This is more of a consulting site for EDGAR filers than users.

Education grants= (See Funding)

EDUCOM= A group of cooperating colleges and universities dedicated to advancing computer and network communications technology in education. EDUCOM coordinates newsletters and other publishing efforts along with conferences and related activities. For free publication subscriptions, contact EDUCOM, 1112 16th St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036 (202-872-4200).

EduQuest= A revitalized system of multimedia hardware and software packages from IBM Corporation. The system primarily targets the K-12 education system in the United States. The new system is designed to be more powerful with networked PCs and a variety of Plug and Play adapters for auxiliary components.

EISA= (See Bus)

Electronic classroom= A large or small classroom filled with multimedia devices. The usual context is that of a lecture hall where the instructor has fingertip control of multimedia aids such as computer images, video tape images, videodisc images, audio, CD-ROM players, Internet connections, cameras that transfer images to large screens, etc. Some electronic classrooms have student response hardware such as response pads or even computer terminals. Usually, however, the electronic classroom is not viewed in the same context as a computer/multimedia lab or a language lab. In a lab setting the student usually works alone or in small teams in front of computers. In an electronic classroom, the instructor is usually focusing the attention of the entire class upon the same learning media. However, labs can be equipped with central screens so that combinations of instructor-focused materials can be combined with individual learning. Large lecture halls can also be equipped with students who combine large lectures with "studio classroom learning." See DeLoughry (1995a). (See also Studio classroom)

Electronic Jamming  (See Security)

E-mail or email= Electronic mail transmitted between millions of users connected on networks worldwide. Messages are exchanged instantaneously, usually at zero marginal cost to users, thereby saving greatly on national or international telephone and express mail fees. Messages may be stored in computer files and processed at a user's convenience.   Precautionary advice is given under ActiveX. (See also Internet, Internet MessagingInstant Messaging, SLIP, and USENet)

For more about email virus risks and email attachment risks, see 

I wrote the following at



My reply to a faculty member concerned about how to reference email messages:

I think that when referencing such things you should fine tune distinctions between bulletin boards, email groups, listservs, forums, and chat rooms.

Bulletin boards do not allow users to all send messages to the bulletin board to each other. For example, an investment service my send bulletins to subscribers but subscribers cannot send messages to all other subscribers (unless they are given email addresses of each subscriber). Messages may also be posted at a web site with or without passwords for viewing messages on the board.

Listservs, listserves, or list serves (all three spellings seem to be used in practice and I am no authority on the "correct spelling" here) are like TigerTalk. Only subscribers can send messages to the list and messages sent to the list are sent to all subscribers' mail boxes. Usually you can subscribe or unsubscribe with a simple email message.

Email groups are like listservs with the distinction that a webmaster sets up designated members and one cannot simply "subscribe" to join the list or depart from the list. Since listservs are more complicated for webmasters to set up, the web master will usually recommend setting up an email group for a relatively fixed group. For example, the Department of Business Administration has a group address Staff in this department all receive any message sent to this address. However, no person can "subscribe" to or "unsubscribe from" the list with a simple email message like can be done with a listserv. Only the webmaster can add and remove members from the email group.

Forums can be listservs, email groups, or web sites programmed for input of user messages. The key distinction in being designated a "forum" is that there is a manager (moderator, editor, czar, steering committee, or what have you) who "runs" the thing to stimulate messaging on certain topics, follow-ups to messages, and generally keeps the thing moving in certain directions or blocks moving in other directions. The manager usually has an "official" appointment. For example, Southwestern Publishing as designated a famous author to manage a forum on certain types of topics. Often forums depend upon the reputation or power of the manager. An author or publisher may establish a forum for a given book or subset of related books.

Chat rooms entail messaging at designated times such that email discussions are more like conference calls.

If you find a preferred spelling of listserv, please let me know.



What is an emoticon?

Hint: :-)
It was first invented by professor Scott E. Fahlman at Carnegie Mellon University on September 19, 1972

Language experts say the smiley face and other emotional icons, known as emoticons, have given people a concise way in e-mail and other electronic messages of expressing sentiments that otherwise would be difficult to detect. Fahlman posted the emoticon in a message to an online electronic bulletin board at 11:44 a.m. on Sept. 19, 1982, during a discussion about the limits of online humor and how to denote comments meant to be taken lightly. "I propose the following character sequence for joke markers: -)" wrote Fahlman. "Read it sideways." The suggestion gave computer users a way to convey humor or positive feelings with a smile _ or the opposite sentiments by reversing the parenthesis to form a frown.
Digital ‘smiley face’ turns 25," MSNBC, September 18, 2007 ---

A listing of emoticon examples is given at


Emulation= (See Native)

Encryption= cryptographic conversion of data into ciphertext in order to prevent any but the intended recipient from reading that data. There are many types of data encryption, and they are the basis of network security. Common types include Data Encryption Standard and public-key encryption.

(See Security)

eNetwork Software= (See IBM)

Enterprise= A synonym for business, mainly big business. The enterprise computing market is typically the corporations that buy hardware and software and use them to run their operations.

EPG= Electronic Program Guide that displays scheduled shows on screen such as TV Guide On Screen.

ERP = (See SAP).

ERIC= Educational Resources Information Center documents database that contains a variety of resources to educators, especially teachers in K-12 schools. (See also Telnet)

ESH= Electronic Super Highway. (See Information highway)

ERP = (See SAP.)

Ethernet= A widely used interface data processing scheme for managing data transfers on network. An ethernet board (card) must be put into the computer for network connections. It can network a wide variety of computers, it is not proprietary, and components are widely available from many commercial sources.

Evaluation= (See Assessment)

Event handler= A special type of function that executes automatically when a particular user-enabled, system-enabled, or code-generated event occurs.

eWorld= A commercial world-wide network launched by Apple Corporation to compete with Interchange, CompuServe, Prodigy, and America Online. Key features of eWorld include its ease of use and graphical interface. The major limitation is that its use is restricted to Mac operating systems. A second drawback according to Mossberg (1994c) is that eWorld uses older technology revised from America Online. (See also Networks, CompuServe, Internet, Prodigy, Interchange, and America Online)

Execution flow= The section of code that the application executes, depending on branching decisions.

Expanded memory= (See RAM)

Expansion board/slot= (See Board)

Expert systems= (See Artificial Intelligence)

Explorer = (See Web browsers)

Express Author = A front end to Asymetrix Multimedia ToolBook that performs automatic scripting to both speed authoring and aid ToolBook novices. The software was developed at the IAT. This front end is mainly an aid to beginning authors who do not plan to become ToolBook experts. (See also Authoring and IAT)

Extended memory = (See RAM)

eXstensible Style Language (XSL)  = (See HTML)

External Viewer= A program used for presenting graphics, audio and video files. Programs that allow the viewing of GIF and JPEG files and the hearing of AU files fall into this category.

Extractor = (See Wrapper).

Extranet= a term depicting networks on the Internet dedicated to business communications between a vendor and its suppliers, customers, or dealers. The term originated from network pioneer Robert Metcalfe. Using the common format of the World Wide Web, companies, their suppliers, customers, or suppliers exchange data electronically rather than sending paper-based information back and forth. It is viewed as an Internet alternative to Electronic Data Interchange comprised of dedicated lines and software rather than the Internet. Extranets are a lower cost alternative to EDI. For example, see "Toshiba Debuts Extranet" in Information Week, October 20, 1997, p. 36. Therein it is stated that nearly all of Toshiba's 350 independent dealers will be ordering products and parts via a secure extranet. FedEx now offers a BusinessLink extranet service with intent on handling the accounting for transactions as well as delivery of product. Competitors either are or will soon offer similar extranets. See EDI, Internet, and Intranet.

Return to Top of Document


Click on a term or phrase below:

FAQ / FC-AL / Fax / FDMA / Fiber optic / Fiero Online / File attributes / File server / File transfer / Finger / Finger gateway / Firewall / FireWire / Flash / Flash memory / Flash Player / Flatbed / flc/fli / FM synthesis / FMV / Fourth Generation Database Langages / fps / Freenets / FTP / Full-duplex / Fullerenes / Function / Funding

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view   (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

FAQ= This is the acronym for Frequently Asked Questions. A common feature on the Internet, FAQs are files of answers to commonly asked questions. Read FAQs before wasting electrons asking obvious questions. Saves you from receiving flames.

FC-AL = (See SSA.)

Fax= Devices for transmitting and receiving photocopies over telephone lines. Text and graphics may be printed on paper or stored in computer files. Text is received as a graphic and must be translated by specialized software to be stored as text files for word processors. (See also PDA)


FDMA= (See Wireless Glossary of Terms)

Fiber optic= Cable that carries light pulses instead of electrical current. A cable comprised of a multitude of fine glass fibers has much more capacity than the previously popular copper cable. (See also Information highway, Networks, and Sonet)

Fiber Optics Terms from "Fiber to the School Desk," in T.H.E. Magazine, November 2001, p. 26 --- 


Category 5e (Enhanced) - A category of performance for inside wire and cable. Used in support of signaling rates of up to 100 MHz over distances of up to 100 meters. Calls for tighter twists, electrical balancing between pairs and fewer cable anomalies. CAT5e is intended to support 100 Base-T, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet.

Cisco IP/TV - A comprehensive network video-streaming system for businesses, schools and governmental organizations. Using network-efficient multicast technology it delivers TV-quality live video programming.

Fiber Optics - A technology in which light is used to transport information from one point to another. More specifically, fiber optics are thin filaments of glass through which light beams are transmitted over long distances carrying enormous amounts of data.

Hub - The point of a network where circuits are connected. Also, a switching node. In Local Area Networks, a hub is the core of a star as in ARCNET, StarLAN, Ethernet and Token Ring. Hub hardware can be either active or passive. Wiring hubs are useful for their centralized management capabilities and for their ability to isolate nodes from disruption.

IDF - Intermediate Distribution Frame. A metal rack designed to connect cables, located in equipment or in a closet. Consists of components that provide the connection between the interbuilding and intrabuilding cabling, i.e. between the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) and individual phone wiring. There's usually a permanent, large cable running between the MDF and IDF. The changes in wiring are done at the IDF, preventing confusion in wiring.

MDF - Main Distribution Frame. A wiring arrangement that connects external telephone lines on one side and the internal lines on the other. A main distribution frame may also carry protective devices as well as function as a central testing point.

MTRJ - A small form-factor style of fiber optic connector that is defined by its high-density footprint and RJ45 locking mechanism.

Multimode - An optical fiber designed to allow light to carry multiple carrier signals, distinguished by frequency or phase, at the same time. (Contrasts with singlemode.)

SC - Designation for an optical connector featuring a 2.5 mm physically contacting ferrule with a push-pull mating design. This connector is recommended in the TIA/EIA-568A Standard for structured cabling.

ST - Designation for the "straight tip" connector developed by AT&T. This optical connector features a physically contacting, nonrotating 2.5 mm ferrule design and bayonet connector-to-adapter mating.

Singlemode - A fiber that allows only a single mode of light to propagate. This eliminates the main limitation to bandwidth, modal dispersion.

Fiero Online= The Princeton University online art class on Fiero del Fancesca, an Italian 15th century Renaissance artist. This is an Iris Silicon Graphics high-end database library with scanned images of frescoes and a three-dimensional walking tour on computer for students. Students also construct their own models. This is considered one of the most successful CAL applications in universities.

File attributes= Access rights attached to each file.

File server= A computer running a network operating system that enables other computers to access its files.

File transfer= The ability to transfer text, graphics, software, spreadsheets, audio files, and video files over vast distances on computer networks such as the Internet. For example, the entire works of Shakespeare can be downloaded from Dartmouth College and government documents may be transferred from the Library of Congress. (See also FTP, Internet, and SLIP)

Finger= An Internet protocol used to find out more information about an Internet user. (See also Cookies)

Finger gateway= A source listing of graphics images that have been placed around the world on the Internet. (See also Mosaic)

Firewall= Go to 

Also see security.

FireWire = (See Bus.)

Flash = the name of a software product from Macromedia that is intended for more efficient Internet delivery of graphics and other media.  

Neil Balthaser writes "Kill HTML Before It Kills Us," in NewMedia, September 1999. pg. 22.  The online version is at  In his own words, Neil Balthaser asserts the following:

Recently I was on a keynote panel addressing the future of the Web. The crowning moment came when the moderator displayed an HTML page before a crowd of hundreds, on 15-foot über-screens, and praised its "creative" use of fields! To emphasize her point, she changed the title from "The Art Center College of Design" to "The Fart Center College of Design."

This is how we're supposed to captivate the world and grab the attention of the masses? I don't think so.

Right now, raging all around us, is an enormous battle for mindshare. The movie studios are creating bigger blockbusters; stores are re-creating themselves as "community centers"; and gyms are adding translucent shower room walls so fitness buffs can watch anonymous figures lather up as they're working out. Yet among these distractions, do any stunning HTML pages spring to mind? How can we expect to survive this battle with HTML as our only weapon?

The simple answer is, we can't. Yet we continue to try.

I can hear your HTML programmers now: "But being creative using the simplest of tools shows the greatest creativity of all!" While this may be true, it's beside the point. If simple is best, how many master ASCII artists have you hired? Etching on film may be the simplest method of creating special effects, but that doesn't mean the dinosaurs in Jurassic Park were etched on film. People are demanding better, hotter, and sexier forms of entertainment, and we're not going to give it to them with HTML. As an industry, we have to find and support other solutions.

Currently, Flash is our best weapon. Drop HTML, pick up Flash, and really learn it -- then push it. It offers the most robust authoring environment around, and it's backed by a single company that is focused on creating great tools. If Java had this kind of dedication behind it, I'd recommend it as well. But for all Java's strengths, it lacks a great, nontechnical authoring environment -- and that's what unleashes creativity and gives a new medium a life of its own.

Mr. Balthaser makes some good points, especially with respect to graphics, animation, and multimedia.  However, it seems unlikely that Flash will ever replace HTML.  At Macromedia's  you read the following:

Easily design and reliably deliver high-impact, low-bandwidth Web sites to all browsers. Flash is the only solution that lets you produce sites with vector and bitmap graphics, motion, MP3 audio, form input, and interactivity. Leading high-traffic consumer and portal sites use Flash to deliver engaging experiences that attract and excite Web users everywhere.

Be that as it may, text has many advantages over other forms of media.  For example, text is the most efficient form of communication for search engines (at least until we really get serious about metadata, RDF, and XML).  Flash cannot hold a candle to text formatting in FrontPage and Microsoft Office products such as PowerPoint and Word.  Excel 2000 documents can now be saved in dynamic HTML (see ).  Microsoft Access 2000 documents can be saved in dynamic HTML.  Macromedia has never suggested that its Flash software can replace its own Macromedia Dreamweaver.  My point here is that HTML is not even close to dying.  The frustration at the moment is that for web authoring, we need an entire tool box filled with FrontPage, Dreamweaver, PowerPoint, and a host of other products including (possibly) Flash.  

Now that PowerPoint reads so well in Internet Explorer and has audio capabilities via RealPresenter ( ), perhaps some of you can help me with the question of whether Flash really can or should replace FrontPage and PowerPoint.  I think not. I do think HTML will shrink in importance as networked databases grow in popularity, but it would seem that Flash will remain a small niche in a very large market.

Flash memory= An erasable memory used as an alternative to hard disk and laser disc storage. The term is used most often in conjunction with PCMCIA cards. (See also Hard drive, RAM and PCMCIA)

Flash Player=

"Before Going to Buy High-Tech Devices, Learn the New Terms," by Walter S. Mossberg, The Wall Street Journal,  November 16, 2006; Page B1 ---

Flash Player: A small-capacity digital music player, like Apple's iPod Nano and Shuffle. These players use flash memory, a type of memory chip that behaves like a small hard disk to store music, photos and videos. Larger players, such as the full-size iPod and the new Microsoft Zune, use actual hard disks, like the ones in computers. Flash memory is also what's inside the small memory cards used in digital cameras.

Flatbed= (See Scanner)

flc/fli= File extensions for animations conforming to Autodesk formats. With appropriate changes in the win.ini file, most PC computers will play back these animations without having Autodesk software installed. (See also Animation)

FM synthesis= The least-expensive method for producing synthesized sound. FM synthesis uses one sine wave to control the frequency of another. Most synthesizers built into PC audio boards and sound modules use more sophisticated synthesis techniques for greater accuracy in reproducing the sounds of different instruments.

FMV= Full Motion Video depicting video at 30 or more fps. (See also Video)

Fouth Generation Database Languages = (See 4GL Database Languages.)

fps= frames per second in video. Typical "full-motion" video in television and movies is 30 fps, but in digitized video such high fps rates are not yet common. Apple's QuickTime and Microsoft's Video for Windows typically run at 12 to 18 fps. (See also Video)

Freenets= Bulletin board services that are funded by individuals and organizations dedicated to making information freely available on networks. They operate much like public libraries through the National Public Telecommunication Network (NPTN.). Users can connect through modems or through Internet terminals. An example of a freenet is the "campus look-alike" Cleveland Freenet operated by Case Western Reserve University. (See also CWIS and BBS)

FTP= File Transfer Protocol used for downloading files on the Internet. Listings of ftp sites are available from Mosaic. (See also File transfer, Remote login, Mosaic, and Protocol)

File Transfers Across the Internet:  The following article reviews the history and FTP options:
"FTP: For The People," by Michael Calore, Webmonkey, August 30, 2002 --- 

Full-duplex= In full duplex communication, the terminal transmits and receives data simultaneously.

Function= An instruction to the application that performs operations or returns a value, or both.


Fullerenes, those soccer ball–shaped carbon molecules also known as “buckyballs,” have generated outsized expectations ever since their discovery in 1985. Scientists think they could eventually be used in chemical sensors, fuel cells, drug delivery, cancer medicines, and smart materials. Yet while commercial demand for fullerenes is gradually emerging, so are fears that these molecules, which measure only a few billionths of a meter across, pose serious health and environmental hazards.
"Mitsubishi: Out Front in Nanotech," by Stephen Herrera, MIT's Technology Review, January 2005 --- 

Also see UbiquitousComputing.

Bob Jensen's threads on ubiquitous computing are at  


Funding= The raising of funds for hardware, software, and development. Grants are available from a variety of sources as noted in Chapter 3. Funding grants are available from a variety of sources tracked in the newsletters listed in Appendix 4. A directory of some funding sources is given by Eckstein (1991). Summaries of grants and assistance in writing grant proposals can be found in Columns, Spring 1994, p. 3. The CETA Newsletter tracks funding sources for accounting educators. Summer fellowships are also available from Teletraining Institute (405-744-7510). Apple Corporation offers a variety of funding sources for Mac and PowerPC users. (See also Delta Project)

Return to Top of Document


Click on a term or phrase below:

GainMomentum / Games / Gateways / GDI / GDS / Gershwin / GIF / GINA / Gnutella/Napster / Gopher / Gopherspace / GPS / Grants / Graphics / Graphics adapter / Grid Computing / Group / Group rights / Groupware / GSM / GUI

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view   (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

GainMomentum= The high-end $10,000 hypertext and hypermedia authoring software package from Sybase (800-879-2273). Features of this amazing, albeit expensive, software are reviewed in Morph's Outpost, September 1994, p. 1 ff, and in NewMedia 1995 Tool Guide, p. 25. Sybase is the first leading-edge vendor to offer serious database networking utilities for hypermedia and cross-platform utilities between UNIX, Windows, and Windows 2000. The main competitor at the high-end level will be ScriptX, although at this juncture it is not certain that ScriptX will match GainMomentum in database, networking, and Windows 2000 capabilities. (See also Cross-platform, Authoring, and ScriptX)

Games= Interactive entertainment programs that can be played back on computers or special playing machines connected to television sets. Some games are sold on compact discs that can either be played in CD-ROM drives connected to computers or CD players that are proprietary. For example, Sega games play on Sega players, Data Discman games play on Data Discman players, CD-I games play on CD-I players, etc. Games are generally authored by game vendors and cannot be modified or updated for education uses by users. Educators who think that their students are spending many hours in computer labs for academic purposes may discover that a large portion of computer lab time is taken up with game playing. More research needs to be conducted on the fascination of games so that educators can make better use of building these motivational factors into more serious learning materials. According to Pereira (1994), CD-ROM games are overtaking market leaders such as Sega and Nintendo that captured the early game markets with players that were not compatible with PC, Mac, or other desktop computers. Games are popular and addictive, in part, due to the release of endorphins in the brain, especially among women according to Carlton (1994a). (See also MUDs)

Gateways= Are connectors between two or more dissimilar networks that facilitate communication in such instances. Gateways have their own processors to perform both protocol and bandwidth conversions. Gateways between the Outernet and the Internet translate different protocols such as e-mail protocols of different networks into Internet protocols. (See also Internet, Mosaic, Finger Gateway, Whois Gateway, and Outernets)

GDI= Graphics Device Interfaces link graphics hardware devices with the CPU. Much of the power of graphics processing depends upon whether the system has 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, or 64-bit graphics power. Limitations of customer hardware often detract from the ability to develop operating systems to take full advantage of graphics power. For example, when developing Windows Chicago for 32-bit processors, Microsoft Corporation had to leave 16-bit GDI capacity on its 32-bit operating system.

GDS (See Desktop Search)

Gershwin= The name given to Apple's planned operating system 9.0 for Mac and PowerPC computers. New features were to include advanced speed recognition, interfacing that adapts to individual users, and new microkernal architecture. However, the System 9.0 has been abandoned in favor of an entirely new operating system called Rhapsody. Apple's hopes are riding heavily upon the evolution of a new operating system called Rhapsody that is a revolutinary operating system based upon NEXTStep technology. (See also Mac, PowerPC, Operating system, Copeland, Gershwin, and Rhapsody)

GIF= This acronym stands for Graphic Interchange Format, a commonly used file compression format developed by CompuServe for transferring graphics files to and from online services. This is an extremely popular standard because it is so widely read in graphics software alternatives and is commonly used as the "GIF" file extensions of images carried on bulletin boards and transported across networks. A major drawback is the loss of color depth in GIF compression. Animated GIFs are popular at web sites. Click here for some links to Animated Gif Construction.  (See alsoJPEG)

GINA= A graphical interface (formerly known as GUIDE) for the Internet. This is a low-cost option for graphically interfacing with e-mail, bulletin boards, databases, library catalogs, news services, and conferencing. Contact California Technology Project, P.O. Box 3842, Dept. PRG, Seal Beach, CA 90740-7842 (310-985-9631). The e-mail address is

Gnutella/Napster = (See Napster/Gnutella )

Gopher= A menu-driven and user-friendly system of Internet sites that facilitate searching and browsing of documents and files around the world. Gopher has been largely overtaken by more modern web browsers (see Web browsers). Gopher was the first system that communicated easily between different types of operating systems and computer installations. The term "Gopher" arises from the fact that the system originated with graduate students at the site of the "Golden Gophers" at the University of Minnesota. The Gopher is one of the most popular of various menu-driven systems such as WAIS and World Wide Web. NOTIS Systems (708-866-0150) developed a Windows' front end to Gopher that is described in THE Journal, March 1994, p. 39. A graphical interface called WinGopher is available from NOTIS Systems Inc., 1007 Church Street, Evanston, IL 60201-3665 (800-556-6847). Gopher became very popular on the Internet, but it is now being replaced by a similar and more graphics-oriented system called Mosaic that has Gopher services available. (See also GINA, Mosaic, Internet, and SLIP)

Gopherspace= A term used to describe the entire gopher network.

GPS= Global Positioning System hardware that facilitates navigation via satellites. There are now versions for automobiles that have LCD screens to show maps and present vehicle location.

Grants= (See Funding)

Graphics = Computer images that contain pictures, drawings, and other forms of imagery other than text. Popular file extensions for graphics files are bmp, pcx, tif, and cgm. See CGM for a discussion of graphics that will cross platforms between Mac and PC computers. The best-buy graphics software options are ranked in PC Computing, December 1994, p. 205. Software options for 3-D rendering on the web are reviewed in the NewMedia, May 5 1998, pp. 52-64. The NewMedia web site is at Those authoring packages rated as "Awesome" include Live Picture Reality Studio at (800-724-7900) and Platinum Technology VRCreator at (800-442-6861).  There are many other options rated as "Thumbs Up" or "Does the Job."  (See also 2-D, 3-D, SVG, and Paintbrush software)

Graphics adapter= The hardware inside a computer that enables the computer to display graphics on the screen. In contrast to Mac computers, PCs have a larger variety of graphics adapters that complicate compatibility between different PCs. In the early days, the PC standard was the Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) that, by today's standards, is low resolution and low in color combinations. This was replaced by EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter and then VGA Video Graphics Array having a standard 480 lines vertical and 640 pixels horizontal resolution. Today Super VGA extensions (to at least 600 lines vertical and 800 pixels horizontal) are the choice among most PC users for whom graphics displays are important. Be aware, however, that there are different Super VGA resolutions and monitor options that can affect the compatibility of graphics images among different PCs. Also be aware that LCD panels are not able to handle the higher resolutions of cathode ray monitors; therefore, images may not look as good during class delivery as they did on a monitor during the authoring process. The top-rated graphics adapters at the end of 1994 are Impression Plus (Rank 1) with 4Mb of video RAM from Matrox (514-685-2630), Imagine-128 (Rank 2) with 4Mb of video RAM from Number Nine (800-438-6463), and Graphics Pro Turbo (Rank 3) with 4Mb of video RAM from ATI (905-882-2600) according to PC Computing, December 1994, p. 140. A good company with computer to video interfaces isExtron. (See also AB style switches and LCD)

Grid Computing 

IBM Bets Future on Grid Computing

Whatis Definition of Grid Computing ---,,sid26_gci773157,00.html 

Grid computing (or the use of a computational grid) is applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time - usually to a scientific or technical problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or access to large amounts of data. A well-known example of grid computing in the public domain is the ongoing SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) @Home project in which thousands of people are sharing the unused processor cycles of their PCs in the vast search for signs of "rational" signals from outer space. According to John Patrick, IBM's vice-president for Internet strategies, "the next big thing will be grid computing."

Grid computing requires the use of software that can divide and farm out pieces of a program to as many as several thousand computers. Grid computing can be thought of as distributed and large-scale cluster computing and as a form of network-distributed parallel processing. It can be confined to the network of computer workstations within a corporation or it can be a public collaboration (in which case it is also sometimes known as a form of peer-to-peer computing).

A number of corporations, professional groups, university consortiums, and other groups have developed or are developing frameworks and software for managing grid computing projects. The European Community (EU) is sponsoring a project for a grid for high-energy physics, earth observation, and biology applications. In the United States, the National Technology Grid is prototyping a computational grid for infrastructure and an access grid for people. Sun Microsystems offers Grid Engine software. Described as a distributed resource management (DRM) tool, Grid Engine allows engineers at companies like Sony and Synopsys to pool the computer cycles on up to 80 workstations at a time. (At this scale, grid computing can be seen as a more extreme case of load balancing.)

Grid computing appears to be a promising trend for three reaons: (1) its ability to make more cost-effective use of a given amount of computer resources, (2) as a way to solve problems that can't be approached without an enormous amount of computing power, and (3) because it suggests that the resources of many computers can be cooperatively and perhaps synergistically harnessed and managed as a collaboration toward a common objective. In some grid computing systems, the computers may collaborate rather than being directed by one managing computer. One likely area for the use of grid computing will be pervasive computing applications - those in which computers pervade our environment without our necessary awareness.


Read more about it at:

Terena offers a list of links to organizations working with grid computing.

Sun Microsystems provides a press release about its Grid Engine.

"Harnessing the Power of Grid Computing" describes simulations involving Einstein's General Relativity equations.

The Peer-to-Peer Working Group is fostering the advancement of infrastructure best practices.


From ADT Trends Newsletter on May 13, 2002


IBM: May the Grid be with you By John K. Waters

IBM ( used last week's developerWorks Live conference in San Francisco as a platform for touting the Grid computing paradigm as well as unveiling new open standards-based integration software; new developer tools; and to announce new strategic partnerships, new partner program offerings and new developer support offerings.

But the real buzz at this year's show was generated by IBM's continued push into grid computing, which the firm defines as a persistent environment that enables software applications to integrate instruments, displays, computational and information resources that are managed by diverse organizations in widespread locations. And the company is betting big on its potential.

IBM's interest in grid computing is not new. Last year, company reps were touting it as vital in the evolution of computing. Last November, Irving Wladawsky-Berger, vice president of technology and strategy in IBM's Server Group, called grid computing the "key to advancing e-business into the future and the next step in the evolution of the Internet towards a true computing platform." He predicted that commercial uses of grid computing will soon emerge, and that the model will eventually serve as a vast infrastructure for e-business. Last week, Wladawsky-Berger was again IBM's point man for grid computing, declaring that "the grand challenge now is marrying Web services and grid computing."

Observers said Big Blue jumped to the head of the Grid pack last week by joining forces with Inc. ( , to deploy the first-ever custom commercial grid for the online video gaming market. The Butterfly Grid is designed to support so-called Massively-Multiplayer Games (MMGs), which pits millions of gamers worldwide against each other within the same game in real time., a development studio, online publisher, and infrastructure provider for MMGs, built its Grid over the last two years using IBM e-business infrastructure technology. The Butterfly Grid is powered by rack-mounted Linux-based IBM eServer xSeries systems hosted by IBM and running on internal fiber-optic networks for optimal use of computing and communications resources. The grid design offers the potential to support over one million simultaneous players from each facility in a 24/7 environment with automatic fail over capability. officials said the open source Globus Toolkit ( ) was used to build its gaming grid. The Globus Project is a multi-institutional research and development effort creating fundamental technologies for computational grids. IBM also used Globus technologies to build its grid, described by IBM as a "geographically distributed supercomputer linking IBM research and development labs in the United States, Israel, Switzerland, Japan and England."

IBM officials describe the Butterfly Grid as a key commercial innovation. "We believe the Butterfly Grid is a breakthrough platform that will help entertainment, media and game companies reduce costs and better deploy their entertainment properties online," said Scott Penberthy, vice president of business development in IBM's global services group.

The Butterfly Grid is available as a fully managed service, as a packaged software license, or as a complete hardware/software solution.

Also see CFMLDatabase, DTP, GainMomentum, JDBC, Middleware, Relational database management, SAP, Resource Description Framework, and 4GL Database Languages.

Group= A collection of users.

Group rights= Rights given to a collection of users.

Groupware= software applications that facilitate shared work over long distances on documents and information. Groupware supports person-to-person collaborations and includesLotus Notes,Livelink from Open Text Intranets, E-mail, Silent Meeting Systems, Videoconferencing, etc. A good reference for groupware is found in Netscape's discussion of groupware is at See also Collaboration and CMC.

GSM = (See Wireless Glossary of Terms)

GUI= An acronym for Graphical User Interface, this term refers to a software front-end meant to provide an attractive and easy to use interface between a computer user and application, which historically gave rise to the icon-based operating system of Apple Corporation computers. The GUI concept actually had its origins in Xerox Corporation's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the early 1970s. However, it was Apple Corporation who eventually exploited the technology that is now the fundamental basis of Mac, Windows, and other GUI operating systems that perform commands based upon bit-mapped graphics icons. This paved the way for object-oriented systems of the 1990s. (See also Mac and Windows) A decade of the revolution in GUI and hypermedia Mac computing is celebrated in a book by Levy (1994) that is given an extensive review in Time Magazine, January 31, 1994, pp. 93-94. (See also America Online)

Return to Top of Document


Click on a term or phrase below:

Hacker / / Half duplex / Handicapped /Handshaking / Hard drive / Hawthorne Effects / HBSP / HDMI / HDSPA / HD-DVD / HDTV / Helper app / Herf Guns and EMP Bombs / Hertz / Hi-8 / HL / Hologram / Home Page / HOP / Host / Hot spots / Hotlink / Hotlists / Hotword / HP/UX / HTML / HTML Document / HTTP / HTTPs / HTTPd / HyperCard / Hyperfacts / Hyperfiction / Hyperionics Hypercam / Hyperlink / Hypermedia / Hypertext / HX-Pro / Hz

Blue.gif (84 bytes)Click here to view   (in a new window) Bob Jensen's Listing of Other Technology and Networking Glossaries

The easiest way to find definitions is to go to Google Define ---
Simply go to Google at or
In the search box type define and insert the phrase you want defined in quotations.
For example, suppose you want to define “Grid Computing”
Simply type in define “Grid Computing” in the search box and hit the search button 

Hacker = (See

Half duplex= In half duplex communication, the terminal transmits and receives data in separate, consecutive operations.

Handicapped = (See Disabilities.)

Handshaking= A set of commands recognized by the sending and receiving stations that control the flow of data transmission.

Hard drive= A "hard disc" file storage disc (usually a magnetic disc) on a computer that has higher storage capacity and faster access time (e.g., under 20 ms) than slower devices such as floppy disc drives and optical disc (e.g., CD-ROM) drives. This is not the same as memory or random access memory (RAM). Usually the term "hard drive" refers to rigid discs coated with magnetic material. Fast hard discs are compared and reviewed in NewMedia, November 1994, p. 103. (See also RAM, Flash memory, RAID, and CD)

Hawthorne Effects= refer to distortions and possibly non-sustaining effects of a treatment just because its newness captures more of an individual's attentiveness. In double blind studies of the impact of technologies upon learning, Hawthorne effects are particularly troublesome. Students are more apt to be more attentive to newer technologies simply because they are "new" curiosities. Positive results on learning impacts may not be sustaining, however, after the novelty and curiosity factors decline with repeated use of the technology over time.

HBSP= Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston MA 02163 (800-545-7685). Although most noted for its hard copy publishing of cases and journals, HBSP has gone somewhat high tech with CD-ROM cases and catalogs listed on the Internet. Most CD-ROM options, unfortunately, do not include hypertext or hypermedia animations, audio, and video segments. A noted exception is the hypermedia video disc entitled Managing International Business by Harvard's Christopher Bartlett and INSEAD's Sumatra Ghoshal that is marketed by Course Technology (800-648-7450). A review is given in Harvard Business School Teaching Publications, Spring 1994, pp 1-3. Details of CD-ROM by Bartlett and Ghoshal are provided in Appendix 1. The Gopher address of HBSP is CATALOG@HBSCAT.HARVARD.EDU and the Telnet address is HBSCAT.HARVARD.EDU. E-mail may be addressed to HBSCAT@CCHBSPUB.HARVARD.EDU. The catalog is also available on floppy disc. (See also ECCH)


"Before Going to Buy High-Tech Devices, Learn the New Terms," by Walter S. Mossberg, The Wall Street Journal,  November 16, 2006; Page B1 ---

HDMI: This acronym, for High-Definition Multimedia Interface, describes a new kind of cable for hooking high-definition TVs to things like cable boxes and DVD players. It provides a high-quality digital feed, and combines both audio and video signals via a single connection. When shopping for an HDTV, make sure it has HDMI connectors on the back.


"Before Going to Buy High-Tech Devices, Learn the New Terms," by Walter S. Mossberg, The Wall Street Journal,  November 16, 2006; Page B1 ---

HSDPA: An awkward name for a new high-speed cellphone network being deployed in the U.S. by Cingular Wireless. Its full name is High Speed Downlink Packet Access, and it's intended to compete with successful high-speed networks from Verizon and Sprint called EVDO, or Evolution Data Only. All of these new networks allow Internet access at about the speed of a slow home DSL line, which is a big boost for cellphones. If you care about email and Internet access on a phone, and you are using Cingular, get a phone that can handle HSDPA.


HDTV= High-Definition TV in digitized formats that will eventually replace present analog formats in 16:9 wide-screen TV. The Japanese version of HDTV is not truly the fully-digitized version broadcast system intended for the United States by the end of the year 2000. (See also Intercast,IDTV, Wide-screen TV, Video, and Videodisc-digital)

Helper app= (See Plug-in)

HERF Guns and EMP Bombs  (See Security)

Hertz= Unit of measure that equals a frequency of one cycle per second. (See also Bandwidth, bps, Kilohertz, and megahertz)

Hi-8= A professional-quality format for high-end video cameras. Whereas the standard consumer resolution 8mm camera records 250 lines, the Hi-8 versions record 400 lines or more so as to produce more detail in video images.

HL= Hyper-Learning using hypertext, hypermedia, and computer networks. Authors like Perelman (1993) tend to use the term in the context of learning from servers on an information highway such as the Internet after multimedia transmissions become more common. (See also JITT and Hypermedia)

Hologram= (See 3-D)

Home Page= The document displayed when you first open your Web browser. Home Page can also refer to the first document you come to at a Web site.

HOP = (See Internet Messaging).

Host= A computer acting as an information or communications server.

Hot spots= Buttons or other programmable objects that can activate objects or linked events.

Hotlink= (See Hyperlink)

Hotlists= Lists of frequently used Web locations and URLs (Uniform Resource Locators).

Hotword= (See Hyperlink)

HP/UX= Hewlett-Packard Unix operating system. Hewlett-Packard also uses other operating systems such as its own proprietary MPE and NEXTStep. (See also Operating system and Unix)

HTML= An acronym for a HyperText Markup Language DTD.  HTML is the language used to tag various parts of a Web document so browsing software will know how to display that document's links, text, graphics and attached media. Your are viewing an HTML document at this moment. The popular HTML and the emerging HTML are subsets of the GML text scripting conceived in1969 IBM researchers depicting Generalized Markup Languages (and not-so-coincidentally the lead researchers were named Goldfarb, Mosher, and Lorie).   Between 1978 and 1987, Dr. Charles F. Goldfarb led the team that developed the SGML Standard GML that is became International Standard ISO 8879.  In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee led a team of particle physicists that invented the World Wide Web using a very small part of SGML that became the widely known and used scripting language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).  SGML is tremendously powerful but inefficient and complex.  HTML is marvelously simple but not very powerful.  In 1996, Jon Bosak of Sun Microsystems to spearheaded the development of the XML standard to lend power, efficiency, cross-platform standards, and simplicity to the networking of databases on the Internet.  At the time of this writing, the world is converging upon an important standard known as RDF (Resource Description Framework) rooted in XML that will be the biggest thing to hit the Internet since HTML hit the Internet in 1991.

For my detailed review of XML, SMIL, XBRL,  and RDF see 

XBRL= eXtensible Business Reporting Language.   This is an extension of XML metatag technology key terminologies in business, accounting, and financial reporting.  The major purpose is to allow users to locate and analyze financial reports or portions of financial reports in a manner that is far more efficient and effective than using traditional search engines and EDGAR utilities. 

The main starting point in understanding XBRL is the XBRL Home Page at

XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) is a royalty-free, open specification for software that uses XML data tags to describe financial information for public and private companies and other organizations. XBRL benefits all members of the financial information supply chain.

XBRL is:

·         A standards-based method with which users can prepare, publish in a variety of formats, exchange and analyze financial statements and the information they contain.

·         Licensed royalty-free worldwide by XBRL International, a non-profit consortium consisting of over 140 leading companies, associations, and government agencies around the world.

·         Permits the automatic exchange and reliable extraction of financial information across all software formats and technologies, including the Internet.

·         Benefits all users of the financial information supply chain: public and private companies, the accounting profession, regulators, analysts, the investment community, capital markets and lenders, as well as key third parties such as software developers and data aggregators.

·         Does not require a company to disclose any additional information beyond that which they normally disclose under existing accounting standards. Does not require a change to existing accounting standards.

·         Improves access to financial information by improving the form of the information and making it more appropriate for the Internet.

·         Reduces the need to enter financial information more than one time, reducing the risk of data entry error and eliminating the need to manually key information for various formats, (printed financial statement, an HTML document for a company's Web site, an EDGAR filing document, a raw XML file or other specialized reporting formats such as credit reports and loan documents) thereby lowering a company's cost to prepare and distribute its financial statements while improving investor or analyst access to information.

·         Leverages efficiencies of the Internet as today's primary source of financial information. More than 80% of major US public companies provide some type of financial disclosure on the Internet, and the majority of information that investors use to make decisions comes to them via the Internet.

XBRL meets the needs of today's investors and other users of financial information by providing accurate and reliable information to help them make informed financial decisions.

Note that early in the Year 2000, XFRML at the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants had a name change to XBRL. 

Efforts are underway to create standards for a new Dynamic HTML (DHTML) in a Document Object Model (DOM). However, progress is slow and will take years according to "A Tangled Web of Standards," in Internet Week, September 27, 1997, p. 1. For more on the WWW Consortium dealing with such issues, see A problem with DHTML is that it is inefficient and requires too many scripts to perform simple tasks.   Moving beyond DHTML  is Extensible Markup Language (XML) originating with Goldfarb and Bosak for putting tags on web pages to facilitate more efficient web searches.  The XML term is misnamed in the sense that it is not technically a markup language.  XML is becoming popular for business operations and web sites.  For a review of XML see  See wrapper.

Some key terms for XML:

  • Document Object Model (DOM) = a platform-independent and language-independent API that compiles an XML document into an internal tree structure and provides access to components and underlying data.
  • Document Type Definition (DTD) = a template that defines allowable structures in XML.  DTD serves for checking validity in terms of XML.
  • eXtensible Style Languate (XSL) = pre-definined XML tags that define the XML data templates and formatting information for XML.  XSL contains rules for transforming XML documents into other formats.
  • XML parser = a program that parses an XML document.  A parser is a program that receives input from sequential source program instructions, interactive online commands, markup tags, or some other defined interface and breaks them up into parts (for example, the nouns (objects), verbs (methods), and their attributes or options) that can then be managed by other programming (for example, other components in a compiler). A parser may also check to see that all input has been provided that is necessary.

The Micrrosoft 2000 upgrades make use of HTML, DHTML, and XML.  For example, it is possible to save an interactive Excel workbook or an Excel chart as a dynamic HTML document.  For an illustrations, go to  Also see Round Tripping.

For a review of HTML and network databases, see

See Round Tripping.

See ASP.


Advantages of HTML

·         Easy to use with low-cost software (ranging from zero to $150 in most cases for HTML converters/editors). The latest word processing upgrades have limited HTML converters and editors included in the upgrade.

·         Both HTML authors and users can be trained easily and inexpensively.

·         HTML documents can be stored in cache such that the server is not tied up every time the client user wants to return to an HTML file (files can be stored in the browser's cache for short periods of time even if the user does not formally download and save the HTML file in a designated directory).

·         HTML documents can be easily printed using browser menu choices (linked graphics appear on pages as if they were pasted onto the document itself).

·         It is very easy to modify sizes of graphics images. A stored gif or jpg file can be viewed in a wide range of sizes (although increasing the size beyond the stored image size may result in pixelization).

·         HTML documents are easy to search and have given rise to popular web search engines (e.g., Yahoo, Altavista, Lycos, HotBot, etc.).

·         An HTML document can be viewed on multiple platforms (Windows, Macintosh, UNIX work stations, etc.).

·         HTML on the web can be networked across existing Internet networks.

·         HTML documents can contain links to graphics, audio, video, and animation files.

·         HTML documents are easy to access with modern browsers and save to client machines with minimal or no virus risks (relative to say virus risks of downloading word processor documents such as DOC files).  (Browsers, however, are no longer risk free.  See ActiveX.

·         HTML source codes are easy to view and modify --- usually with the menu choice (View, Source) in a browser.

Disadvantages of HTML

·         HTML is "document" rather than "data" centered and does not facilitate distributed network computing or relational database management utilities.

·         HTML is static and cannot make arithmetic calculations, date/time operations, perform Boolean logic, or revise data on the client or host computers. You cannot add 2+2 in HTML code.

·         HTML cannot be coded to conduct searches (although other software can be programmed to search HTML documents).

·         HTML cannot be made to tabulate survey responses (even though surveys can be conducted using forms in HTML documents).

·         HTML cannot perform security operations (authorize password clearances, authenticate servers or clients, encode and decode transmissions, etc.).

·         HTML cannot be made to react to signals such as the reaction of replying to messages.

·         HTML on the web requires connectivity to the web which, in turn, requires monthly or annual fees and frustrations of delays caused by clogged networks having insufficient bandwidth (especially for users that must use slow modem connections).

·         HTML generally leads to too many hits when using search engines.  The XML and RDF solutions to this problem are on the way.  See RDF.

For more on the WWW Consortium dealing with such issues, see See also CGI, Resource Description Framework, World Wide Web, and HTTP.

For searching information, see  Search engine.

HTML Document= A document with a  HyperText Markup Language DTD. It must be read using HTTP protocol.   See HTML.

HTTP= The abbreviation for HyperText Transfer Protocol, HTTP is used to link and transfer hypertext documents. The secured socket extension is HTTPs for HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure (has SSL underneath HTTP. Another extension is HTTPd standing for Hypertext transfer protocol Daemon. This protocol can be used to customize web searches and handle response forms on web documents.

HyperCard= (See Hypermedia, Hypertext, Resource Description Framework, World Wide Web, and Authoring)

Hyperfacts= Hypertext and/or hypermedia versions of fact books. The best known of these are encyclopedia CD-ROMs such as the Compton and Grolier options. But there are many other widely selling hyperfact books such as The Way Things Work by David Macauley, a CD-ROM book that has sold over 3 million copies to readers interested in guides and graphics of important inventions. This and several other innovative CD-ROM fact books ranging from sign language to art collections are referenced by Rigler (1994). (See Hyperfiction, Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Authoring)

Hyperfiction= Hypertext and/or hypermedia versions of fiction, usually on CD-ROM discs. The main feature of hyperfiction is that alternative navigations through the plot are possible. In some cases the reader creatively determines certain outcomes. For a review of some of the popular alternatives see Svoboda (1994). Rigler (1994) reports that electronic book offerings at the American Booksellers Association annual meetings seem to be doubling in size annually. She discusses some of the more popular options such as Stowaway by Stephen Biesty. (See also Hyperfacts, Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Authoring)

Hyperionics Hypercam = (See Video.)

Hyperlink= Interactive navigation to other parts of a document, other documents, and other WWW sites. (See also Hypertext and Hypermedia)

Hypermedia= Hypertext with added features for audio and video features. Hypermedia may also entail touchscreen or remote control capabilities such that users can navigate by touching the computer screen or remote control devices. Eventually hypermedia will entail other senses such as smell. The key to hypermedia is random access that allows lightning-fast non linear navigation based upon reader choice or other reader actions such as responses to questions. The term "multimedia" is not totally synonymous with "hypermedia," because multimedia may not entail hypertext authoring. (See also Hypertext, Multimedia, and Timeline presentation) Training workshops are offered by the IAT (Institute for Advanced Technology) (919-405-1900). The IAT also broadcasts training courses via satellite KU and C bands and distributes tapes of those broadcasts. An extensive listing of training programs is provided in Appendix 6. For an introduction to hypermedia, see Jensen (1993). Further details on ToolBook and other authoring options are given in Chapter 3. (Also see Asynchronous Learning Networks, CD, Hyperfiction, Authoring, RAID, and CMS)

Bob Jensen’s threads on computing technologies for sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste are at 

 The history and trends in authoring are summarized at 

Hypertext= Pages of computer text that are authored in software allowing for non linear navigation based upon button controls, hotwords, or other controls that make sequencing of pages virtually irrelevant. Hypertext authoring packages typically differ from word processing packages that are intended primarily for preparing text for hard copy printing. Hypertext software may have options to print particular pages, but the intent is for computer use rather than printing. The key to hypertext is random access that allows lightning-fast non linear navigation based upon reader choice or other reader actions such as responses to questions. (See also Hypermedia and Timeline presentation.) Popular software terminology for hypertext includes HyperCard "stacks," Authorware "network icons," and ToolBook "books." Career opportunities in authoring multimedia are discussed by Jerram (1994a). Courses, trade shows, and literature on learning how to author multimedia works are summarized by Lindstrom (1994). The IAT also broadcasts training courses via satellite KU and C bands and distributes tapes of those broadcasts for persons unable to view/record them live. An extensive listing of training programs is provided in Appendix 6. For an introduction to hypermedia, see Jensen (1993). See Chapter 3 for hypertext and/or hypermedia authoring software options. (Also see Asynchronous Learning Networks, Authoring and CMS)

 The history and trends in authoring are summarized at 

HX-Pro= An audio tape monitoring system marketed by Dolby that facilitates recording of analog audio tapes at higher decibel levels to reduce tape hiss. This is a feature available on high-end tape decks. (See also Dolby-NR)

Hz= (See Hertz)

Return to Top of Document


Click on a term or phrase below: