Survey of Historical Styles
The Middle Ages
AD 476 -- 1453
Sources: Class members of Drama 2311 and other sources.
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ERA
407 Roman abandons Britain. Country invaded by Picts from Scotland, Angles and Saxon from Germany, and Jutes for Jutland in Denmark.
493 Theodoric, King of Ostrogoths becomes king of all Italy
527 Justinian, Byzantine Emperor (to 565). Height of Empire. Included parts of Asia Minor, the Balkan Peninsula, Palestine, Egypt, northern Africa, southern Spain and part of Italy.
584 Kingdom of Mercia founded in England
590 Gregory I, the Great, Pope (to604)
597 St. Augustine lands in England
620 Vikings begin invading Ireland
664 Synod of Whitby
669 Theodore of Tarsus sent to England
1054 Eastern Church independent of Rome
1096 First Crusade
732 Charles Martel defeats Moors at Tours
756 Papal States founded in Italy
771 Charlemagne, King of the Franks (to 814)
787 First Danish invasion of Britain
861 Vikings discover Iceland
871 Alfred the Great, King of Wessex (to 899)
911 Hrold the Ganger granted Normandy
936 Otto I, the Great, King of Germany (to 973)
962 Revival of Holy Roman Empire in West
1096 First Crusade
1016 Danes rule England
1066 Battle of Hastings
1075 Dispute over appoointment of bishops
1152 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (to 1190)
1170 Thomas a Becket murdered
1171 Henry II annexes Ireland
GOTHIC (France, England, Germany and Austria)
~1066: Norman forces won the Battle of Hastings, and William the conqueror
became king of England.
~1215: English barons forced King John to agree to Magna Carta.
~1265 De Montfrot's Parliment
~1282-1283: England conquered Wales
~1295: Edward I called together the Model Parliament.
~1314: Scotland assured its independence from England.
~1337-1453: england Fought the Hundred Years War with France and lost most
of its lands on the European mainland.
~1455-1480: Two royal Families fought for the throne in the Wars of the
~1534: At the urging of Henry VII, Parliament made the King Supreme head of
the Church of England.
~1438: then Hapsburg family of Austria began almost continuous rule of the
Holy Roman Empire.
~1517: Reformation began in Germany.
~1302: Philip IV called together the first Estates- General, the ancestor
of the French Parliament.
~1309-1377: The popes lived in Avignon.
~1337-1453: France defeated England during the Hundred Years War.
~1273: The princess of Germany elected Rudolf I as holy Roman Emperor.
~1278: Rudolf defeated Ohokar.
~1358: Rudolf IV claimed the title of Archduke of Austria.
~1453: Duchy of Austria became Archduchy of Austria.
~1120: developed a ribbed vault.
~1120-1200: Early Gothic
~1140: Saint Denis in Paris- earliest surviving Gothic building was started.
~1163: Notre-Dame de Paris was started.
~1165: Laon Cathedral was started.
-The interior columns and ribs were as if composed of a bunch of more slender parallel members.
-Window tracery evolved.
-Stained glass evolved.
~1192: Nave and choir of Lincoln Cathedral built.
~1200-1300: Early English Gothic Style
~1250: Architects concentrated on the harmonious distribution of masses of masonry and (France) technical problems of height.
~1256: Lincoln Cathedral built.
~1280-1500: Flamboyant style (France)
~1300-1375: Decorated Gothic Style in England
~1375-1500: Perpendicular Style (England)
~1446-1515: Kings College Chapel, Cambridge built.
~1145-1155: Royal Portal of Charles Cathedral
~12th and 13th century: Sculptures became more relaxed.
~1240: Reinus Cathedral.
~14th century: More refined and elegant
-International Gothic Style.
~14th century: started to be used more in decorating
-New Testament scenes.
~late 14th century/ 15th century: Secular subjects
-depiction's of historic events
~1416: Tres Riches Heures du duc de Berry by Limburg Brothers
1182-Capture of Jeruselam by Saladdin
c.1200-University of Paris founded
1202-04 Fourth Crusade
1204-Capture of Constantinople by the crusades, founding of the latin empire of Constantinople.
1215-Magna Carta signed by King John of England
1220-Roman empire and Papacy begin to have deteriorating relations
c.1220-Oxford University founded
1240 Battle of Neva
1241 Mongols withdraw from Europe
1271-95 Marco Polo journeys to China
1273 Rudolf I, Holy Roman Emperor (to 1291)
1305 Papal See removed to Avignon (to 1378)
1309-Papacy forced to leave Rome
1314-First public clock (in Italy)
1328-Death of Charles IV of France. Edward III of England asserts dynastic claim to throne of France, and precipatates Hundred Years' War (1330-1453)
1338 Hundred Years War (to 1453)
1348-1349-Epidemic in Europe of bubonic plague (the Black Death)
1377 The Great Schism (to 1417)
1453 End of Hundred Year's War