Survey of Historical Styles
The Roman World
753 BC - AD 476
Sources: HISTORY'S TIMELINE edited by Fay Franklin.
753 BC Legendary founding of Rome by Romulus, a descendant of the mythical Trojan hero, Aeneas
615-510 Period of Etruscan monarchy. Overthrown by Romans led by Lucius Junius Brutus
509 Republic established under two annually elected consuls, beginning with Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus.
390 Gauls capture Rome, but quickly withdraw.
343-290 Samnite Wars; Rome gains control over central Italy.
280-275 War with Pyrrhus and Greek cities in southern Italy; Rome controls most of Italy.
264-241 First Punic War against Carthage; Sicily becomes a Roman province.
218-201 Second Punic War; Roman repel Hannibal's invansion of Italy and conquers most of Spain
149-146 Third Punic War; Roman destroys Carthage and take undisputed control of western Mediterranean; part of North Africa becomes a Roman province.
133-121 Rome conquers southern Gaul
73-71 Spartacus leads slave revolt
60 Formation of First Triumvirate of Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar
58-51 Caesar conducts campaignes to control Gaul and takes troops to Britain
49 Defying Senate orders to disband his armies, Caesar invades Italy and civil war breaks out.
48-44 Caesar defeats Pompey who flees for Egypt and is killed on arrival; Caesar sole ruler.
44 Caesar assassinated on March 15
31 Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at Actium giving him sole control of Roman Empire; Egypt becomes a province of Rome
27 BC - AD 37 Octavian assumes title of Augustus, becoming Rome's first emperor.
37-96 Reign of various emperors
AD 79 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius buries Pompeii
AD 96-117 Reign of Trajan under whom Rome reaches greatest geographical extent.
122 Hadrian orders construction of wall in northern Britain.
286 During reign of Diocletian, empire divided in eastern and western halves.
306-337 Reign of Constantine; grants freedom of worship to Christians in AD 313; reunited entire empire by 324; transfers seat of power to Constantinople in 330.
410 Visigoth capture and sack Rome
455 Vandals sack Rome
476 Romulus Augustulus deposed leading to the fall of the western empire
1453 Conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks, ending Byzantine Empire.